3 g kg-1 was consumed 120 min prior to performance as previously

3 g kg-1 was consumed 120 min prior to performance as previously done in adult athletes [21]. The PLC-A and PLC-C involved 500 mL of flavored water taken with the same frequency and timing as their corresponding experimental trial. The doses and the ingestion time frame of 120 min pre-trial were chosen to match previously

published protocols using Na-CIT supplementation [13, 23]. It is recognized that there are different ingestion times CA4P clinical trial suggested in the literature, anywhere from 60 to 120 min pre-performance [6, 22]. However, since all previous studies are in adult athletes and this is the first exploratory pediatric study the decision was to start with the time frame previously used for Na-CIT [13, 21]. The placebo and Na-CIT bottles were coded by an independent researcher, and the key was used only at the time of data analysis by the primary investigator. Swimmers were simply asked anecdotally if they knew which solution SBE-��-CD ic50 they were ingesting and if they were experiencing any GI Idasanutlin in vivo discomfort throughout

each trial. In all cases, swimmers did not know which solution they were ingesting and no GI discomfort was reported during the study. Swimming trials The 200 m swimming trials were conducted in a short-course (25 m) pool. Participants swam a 200 m event of their preferred stroke at maximal effort. The choice of stroke was given to increase participant motivation and provide real life data. For each swimmer, the same stroke was used for all four trials (backstroke n = 1, breaststroke n = 2, freestyle n = 6, individual medley n = 1). The breaststrokers and three freestylers (n = 5) were National age group qualifiers, the backstroker and 2 freestylers were provincial qualifiers (n = 3), and the rest were regional qualifiers (n = 2). All swimmers wore the same, regular competition apparel across the four trials. Warm-up and warm-down procedures were based solely on each swimmer’s typical competition routine. Every trial was done during

the same time of the day (5:00–6:00 pm) in order to minimize diurnal and daily variations. The 200 m swim began with a dive from the blocks with a typical competition signal by the same starter. Performance times and rates of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at the end of each trial. Performance times were recorded Thalidomide with a manual stopwatch by the same investigator. Blood sampling and analysis Blood was collected pre-ingestion, 100 min post-ingestion (20 min pre-trial), and 3 min post-trial. The post-trial collection time was chosen based on previous research suggesting that blood lactate reaches its highest concentrations between 3–5 min post-exercise [16, 24–26]. A mixed blood sample was collected by finger prick and analyzed immediately using an automated lactate analyzer (Arkray Lactate Pro LT-1710) to determine blood lactate concentrations.

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