Balance must be maintained for 10 s prior Pacritinib 937272-79-2 to proceeding to subsequent tests. Should a participant not successfully reach the 10 s mark(s), their testing for the balance portion of the SPPB is concluded. Testing staff will use stopwatches to evaluate and record the length of time each position (if applicable) is held. The next component of the SPPB is the gait speed test. Participants will be encouraged to complete this task without an assistive walking device (eg, cane and walker); however, they will be permitted to use assistance should they feel unsafe or uncomfortable completing the walking task after being presented with testing instructions. Participants will be asked to approach a clearly
marked, 4 m course where they will be instructed to walk briskly through the end of the course. This assessment will be conducted twice and the time taken to complete each walk will be recorded. The final component of the SPPB is the two-part chair stand test that is designed to assess lower extremity strength. First, participants will be instructed to sit in a chair and then, when ready, stand from the seated position without the use of arms or an assistive device. Should this first task be completed successfully, the participant will be allowed
to complete the subsequent repeated chair stand test. If a participant is unable to stand from the seated position, the test is complete and they will not move forward to the second portion of the test. Those who move on to the repeated chair stand test will be provided with the same instructions in terms of standing up from a seated position; however, for this particular part of the test, they will be challenged to complete five chair
stand movements in a row within 60 s. Testing staff will monitor time with a stopwatch and will record the number of successful repetitions (up to five) performed. Scores from each of these assessments will be summed together to create a composite score indicative of lower extremity function. Senior Fitness Test Selected components of the Senior Fitness Test28 will be used to assess other elements of physical function not included in the SPPB. First, they will complete a 6 min walk Carfilzomib to assess walking endurance. A walking course will be set-up for the participant, where they will be instructed to walk as quickly yet safely for six continuous minutes with the goal of covering as much ground as possible. Time will be kept with a stopwatch and the total distance walked will be measured via a distance wheel. Testing staff will follow the participant from behind, as to not influence the chosen walking speed, while pushing a distance wheel along the walked course. Second, a 30 s arm curl test will be conducted to assess upper-body strength. During this task, participants will be asked to sit near the side of a chair while holding a dumbbell and completing as many arms curls as possible within 30 s.