Chin Sci Bull 2009, 54:3830–3836.CrossRef 73. Johnston HJ, Hutchison GR, Christensen FM, Peters S, Hankin S, Stone V: Identification of the mechanisms that drive the toxicity of TiO 2 particulates: the contribution of physicochemical characteristics. Part Fibre Toxicol 2009, 6:33.CrossRef 74. Pedata P, Garzillo EM, Sannolo N: Ultrafine particles and effects on the body: review of the literature. G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2010, 32:23–31. Competing interests The authors declare that
they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Innovative and constructive doping into nanomaterials has attracted considerable attention, because a specific dopant could bring Temsirolimus solubility dmso a revolutionary change on the materials’ properties and applications, such as in the fields of energy storage [1, 2], photovoltaics [3, 4], and biosensor . Graphene exfoliated from graphite is a good example, which is doped by some elements JNJ-26481585 (e.g., N [6, 7] and B [6, 8]) has been explored many fascinating
properties and applications. The hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNSs) are a structural analogue of graphene, so-called ‘white-graphene’ , in which B and N atoms alternatively substitute for C atoms . However, in contrast to the comprehensive researches on graphene [6, 11–13], especially the breakthrough in semiconductor devices [14, 15], the study on h-BNNSs, including their exfoliation, properties (by doping or functionalizing), and applications, is in its P505-15 cell line infancy. This may attribute to the ‘lip-lip’ Calpain ionic characteristic of the bonding between neighboring boron nitride (BN) layers , which is stronger than the weak Van der Waals force between graphene layers and the wide band gap of h-BNNS (approximately 4–6 eV) , making it as an insulator. If the two aforesaid challenging problems are solved, h-BNNS will exhibit more novel properties and applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. Of particular interest is that minishing the band gap of h-BNNS by doping into some featured elements could lead an
amazing change from an insulator to a semiconductor. Doping preferentially takes place at the more vulnerable sites, so it will be much easier to perform doping experiment with fewer-layered h-BNNSs. Though several methods have been presented to prepare few-layered or mono-layered h-BNNSs [17, 18], the rigorous conditions restrict these methods to be widely conducted. Recently, Golberg  and Coleman et al.  have put forward a facile route to few-layered or mono-layered h-BNNSs by sonicating the bulk BN in a common liquid solvent. Speaking of doping, several methods have been reported such as placing peculiar dopant into well-defined regions of h-BN nanotubes (h-BNNTs). Wei et al.  used the electron-beam-induced strategy and Wang et al.