Donor strain 536 and recipient strain SY327λpir are controls. Recipients 26, 59, and 77 (selleck compound marked with ‘o’) carried a PAI II536-specific CI, whereas in strains 23, 46, and 54 PAI II536 has been chromosomally inserted at the leuX tRNA locus. L, Lambda Ladder PFGE marker, (New England Biolabs). Remobilisation
of the transferred PAI II536 into E. coli strain 536-21 Since two types of transconjugants resulted from the PAI II536 mobilisation, two types of remobilisation experiments were performed: K-12 strains harbouring either the CI or the chromosomally inserted PAI II536 were used as donors. Since MK 8931 clinical trial the recipient strain 536-21 does not express the π-protein, only chromosomal integration MEK inhibitor of PAI II536 into the leuX gene was observed in all transconjugants. There was a marked difference in the conjugation efficiency between the remobilisation of the circular and the integrated forms. In those cases where strain SY327-77 carrying an episomal CI of PAI II536 was used as donor, average PAI transfer was about 100- to 1000-fold more efficient with transfer rates of 3.75 × 10-5 at 37°C and 4.32 × 10-5 at 20°C, respectively. However, if SY327-54 served as a donor, where PAI II536 was integrated into the chromosome, the average efficiency of transfer was 8 × 10-8 and 1.4 × 10-7, at 37°C and 20°C, respectively (Table 1). These results support
that the mobilised PAI and the RP4 plasmid include Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase all the factors required for excision of the chromsomally inserted PAI as well as for its efficient transfer. Discussion Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important role during prokaryotic evolution. Exchange and accumulation of a variety of fitness or virulence factors frequently carried on mobile genetic elements contributes to evolution of different pathogens and pathotypes from
non- or less pathogenic variants [8, 45]. One perfect environment for this evolutionary process is the mammalian gut with its large bacterial density which offers the possibility of close cell-to-cell contacts between closely or even remotely related bacteria. In this way, members of the gut flora, such as E. coli, may also increase their pathogenic potential and may evolve from commensals into e.g. extraintestinal pathogens. E. coli may, nevertheless, also exist outside of the gut, e.g. in the environment having the possibility to exchange genetic information with other bacteria. High bacterial cell densities could be observed, e.g. in bacterial biofilms, an important bacterial lifestyle in the environment. The PAI II536 transfer at 20°C indicates that E. coli can exchange PAIs not only upon growth at human body temperature but also at a temperature which is closer to the ambient temperature in the environment. For the transfer of PAIs, different mechanisms have been postulated.