In this research, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues of two leucine zipper coiled-coil (LZCC) structural proteins, cGKI alpha(1-59) and MBS(CT35) are dispositioned on the wenxiang diagrams according to heptad repeat pattern (abcdefg)(n), respectively. Their wenxiang diagrams clearly demonstrate that the residues with same repeat letters are laid on same side of the spiral diagrams, where most hydrophobic residues are positioned at a and d, and most hydrophilic residues are localized on b, c, e, f and g polar
position regions. The wenxiang diagrams of a dimetric LDK378 in vivo LZCC can be represented by the combination of two monomeric wenxiang diagrams, and the wenxiang diagrams of the two LZCC (tetramer) complex structures can also be assembled by using two pairs of their wenxiang diagrams. Furthermore, by comparing the wenxiang diagrams of cGKI alpha(1-59) and MBS(CT35), the interaction between cGKI alpha(1-59) and MBS(CT35) is suggested to be weaker. By analyzing the wenxiang diagram of the cGKI alpha(1-59) center dot MBS(CT42) complex structure, most affected residues of cGKI alpha(1-59) by the interaction with MBS(CT42) are proposed at positions d, a, e and g of the LZCC structure. These findings are consistent with our previous NMR results. Incorporating NMR spectroscopy, the wenxiang diagrams of LZCC structures may provide novel insights into
the interaction mechanisms between dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric coiled-coil structures. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The potential to increase unlimitedly in number and to generate differentiated cell types is a key feature of somatic stem cells. Within the nervous system, cellular Selleckchem BX-795 and environmental determinants tightly control the expansion and differentiation of neural stem cells. Importantly, a number of studies have indicated that changes in cell cycle length can influence development and physiopathology of the nervous system, and might have played a role during evolution of the mammalian brain. Specifically, it has been suggested that the length of G1 can directly influence the differentiation of neural precursors. selleck chemical This
has prompted the proposal of a model to explain how manipulation of G1 length can be used to expand neural stem cells. If validated in non-neural systems, this model might provide the means to control the proliferation vs. differentiation of somatic stem cells, which will represent a significant advance in the field.”
“Many theories have been advanced to explain how the brain incorporates time into its computations, in particular for the purpose of estimating the duration of an event. In the present study we examine with a new paradigm the ability to compare the duration of two visual stimuli in the parafoveal visual field, presented either sequentially or overlapping in time. We found that judging the duration of a pair of objects is more difficult when they overlap in time.