Methods: One hundred and nineteen human aortic tissue samples wer

Methods: One hundred and nineteen human aortic tissue samples were

collected from adult patients (101 males, 18 females; age 40-86 years) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Overall extracellular matrix architecture was examined by multiphoton laser scanning microscopy and histology. Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, corresponding tissue inhibitors 1 and 2 as well as desmosine were determined. mRNA levels of tropoelastin were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: Age-related destruction of the vascular elastic laminas as well as a loss of interlamina cross-links were observed by laser scanning microscopy. These results were confirmed by histology indicating increasing interlamma

gaps. There were no significant differences in matrix turnover VX-661 in vitro or desmosine content. A steady decrease in tropoelastin mRNA by about 50% per 10 years of age increase was observed. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ageing is accompanied by a destruction of the elastic vascular structure. However, tropoelastin expression analysis suggests that elastogenesis occurs throughout life SB203580 cost with constantly decreasing levels. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A large body of evidence indicates that reactivation of aversive memories leads to protein synthesis-dependent memory reconsolidation which can be disrupted by cycloheximide (CHX) and other protein synthesis inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CHX would alter maintenance of well-trained instrumental responding for 0.1% saccharin. Male Wistar rats were trained to lever press for saccharin. When lever pressing stabilized, experimental self-administration sessions with CHX (3 mg/kg, s.c.) started. The animals received four experimental sessions, with each session separated by 5 days. The protein synthesis inhibitor was injected immediately after the experimental sessions 1-3. Repeated post-session injections of CHX did not alter saccharin self-administration. A two-bottle choice test conducted after the

last experimental session revealed that CHX had Tanespimycin ic50 not induced any conditioned taste aversion to 0.1% saccharin. The present results suggest that well-consolidated long-term memory of an appetitive instrumental task does not depend on de novo protein synthesis. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The rubber hand illusion (RHI) refers to the illusory perception of ownership of a rubber hand that May occur when covert tactile stimulation of a participant’s hand co-occurs with overt corresponding stimulation of a rubber hand. It is proposed that integrating the rubber hand into one’s body image may shift the subjective body midline away from the rubber hand. The present study investigated the influence of the RHI on pseudoneglect on the line bisection task, i.e.

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