“Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
is as a promising therapeutic tool for major depressive disorder. However, the degree of clinical improvement following rTMS treatment still remains questionable. This pilot study aimed at investigating potential working mechanisms of rTMS by examining the effects on attentional processing towards GDC 0032 in vivo negative information, a proposed underlying cognitive vulnerability factor for depression. The antidepressant effect of high-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possible effects on the inhibitory processing of emotional information was assessed in a sample of 14 depressed patients immediately after the first stimulation session and at the end of a 2-week treatment period. One session of rTMS caused neither significant self-reported mood changes, nor improvements in inhibitory control towards negative information. After a 10-day treatment period, nine out of our 14 patients demonstrated significant mood improvements, as indexed by a reduction of more than 50% on the Hamilton depression rating scale. Responders also demonstrated significant improvements in the inhibitory processing of negative information. This study contributed to the existing evidence of the antidepressant effect of rTMS in the treatment
of depression and find more additionally was able to demonstrate improvements in underlying deficiencies in inhibitory processes towards negative information. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In order to better understand how concepts might be represented in the brain, we used a cross-modal conceptual priming paradigm to examine how repetition-related activity changes in the brain are related to conceptual priming. During scanning, subjects made natural/manmade Y-27632 2HCl judgments on a continuous stream of spoken nouns, written nouns and pictures of objects. Each stimulus either repeated in the same or a different modality with 1-4 intervening trials between repetitions. Behaviorally, participants showed significant perceptual and conceptual priming effects. The fMRI
data showed that the conditions associated with the greatest behavioral priming exhibited the largest decreases in BOLD activity in left perirhinal cortex (PRc), as well as a few other regions. Furthermore, the PRc was the only region to show this relationship for the cross-modal conditions alone, where the concept but not the percept repeated. Conversely, repetition-related increases in PRc activity predicted better subsequent memory as assessed by a post-scan recognition test. These results suggest that repetition-related activity changes in the PRc are related both to the speed of access to a repeated concept and to that concept’s later memorability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Astroviruses have been widely described in mammalian and avian species.