Six patients (all with HCV genotype 1a) had viral breakthrough

. Six patients (all with HCV genotype 1a) had viral breakthrough while receiving therapy, and resistance mutations to both antiviral agents were found in all cases; 1 patient had a viral response at the end of treatment but had a relapse after the treatment period. All 10 patients in group B had a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after treatment, and 9 had a sustained virologic response at 24 weeks after treatment. Diarrhea was the most common adverse Roscovitine in vitro event in both groups. Six patients had transient elevations of alanine aminotransferase levels to more than 3 times the upper limit of

the normal range.

CONCLUSIONS This preliminary study involving patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had not had a response to prior therapy showed that a sustained virologic response can be achieved with two direct-acting antiviral agents only. In addition, a high rate of sustained virologic response was achieved when the two direct-acting antiviral agents were combined with p53 activator peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; number, NCT01012895.)”
“Aims: Kava beverages are highly perishable even under refrigerated conditions. This study aimed

to investigate the bacterial community dynamics in kava beverages during refrigeration.

Methods and Results: Four freshly made kava beverages were obtained from kava bars and stored at 4 degrees C. On days 0, 3 and 6, the aerobic plate count (APC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count and yeast and mould count (YMC) of the samples were determined. Meanwhile, bacterial DNA was extracted from

each sample and subjected to the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Moreover, species-specific PCR assays were employed to identify predominant Pseudomonas spp. involved in kava spoilage. Over the storage period, the APC, LAB count and YMC of the four kava beverages all increased, whereas their pH values decreased. The DGGE profile revealed diverse bacterial populations in the samples. LAB, such as Weissella soli, Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus lactis, were found in the kava beverages. Species-specific PCR assays detected Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens in the samples; Ps. fluorescens became dominant during refrigeration.

Conclusions: LAB and Pseudomonas may play a significant role in the spoilage of kava beverages.

Significance and Impact of the Study: This study provides important information that may be used to extend the shelf life of kava beverages.”
“Swarming is the fastest known bacterial mode of surface translocation and enables the rapid colonization of a nutrient-rich environment and host tissues. This complex multicellular behavior requires the integration of chemical and physical signals, which leads to the physiological and morphological differentiation of the bacteria into swarmer cells.

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