Such mechanisms are believed to build the basis of hippocampal le

Such mechanisms are believed to build the basis of hippocampal learning and memory investigated in the Morris water maze (MWM) task. To examine the role of dephosphorylation during that model for spatial learning, we analyzed protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) expression in the hippocampus of mice at various stages of the task and in two groups with different learning abilities. Methods: Mice were

trained for 4 days with four trials each day in the MWM. For gene expression hippocampi were prepared 1, 6 and 24 h after the last trial of each day. PP1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The task requirements themselves affected expression levels of both PP1 and BDNF. In contrast to BDNF, PP1 was differentially see more expressed during learning. Poorly GSK461364 datasheet and well performing mice differed significantly. When performance was poor the expression level of PP1 was higher. Conclusion: Present results add further in vivo evidence that not only phosphorylation but also dephosphorylation is a major mechanism involved in learning and memory. Therefore, inhibition of hippocampal phosphatase activity might improve learning and memory. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The Ty1 retrotransposon of Saccharomyces

cerevisiae is comprised of structural and enzymatic proteins that are functionally similar to those of retroviruses. Despite overall sequence divergence, certain motifs are highly conserved. We have examined the Ty1 integrase (IN) zinc binding domain by mutating the definitive histidine and cysteine residues and thirteen residues in the intervening (X(32)) sequence between IN-H22 and IN-C55. Mutation of the zinc-coordinating histidine or cysteine residues reduced transposition by more than 4,000-fold and led to IN and reverse transcriptase (RT) instability as well as inefficient proteolytic processing. Alanine substitution

of the hydrophobic residues I28, L32, I37 and V45 in the X(32) region reduced transposition 85- to 688-fold. check details Three of these residues, L32, I37, and V45, are highly conserved among retroviruses, although their effects on integration or viral infectivity have not been characterized. In contrast to the HHCC mutants, all the X(32) mutants exhibited stable IN and RT, and protein processing and cDNA production were unaffected. However, glutathione S-transferase pulldowns and intragenic complementation analysis of selected transposition-defective X(32) mutants revealed decreased IN-IN interactions. Furthermore, virus-like particles with in-L32A and in-V45A mutations did not exhibit substantial levels of concerted integration products in vitro. Our results suggest that the histidine/cysteine residues are important for steps in transposition prior to integration, while the hydrophobic residues function in IN multimerization.

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