These new therapies are reviewed in this article.”
“Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors
enhance the effect of DNA alkylating agents on BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cell lines. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the PARP inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) on breast cancer cells with different BRCA1 expression or function, such as BRCA1-deficient MDA-MB-436 cells, low expression BRCA1 MCF-7 cells, and the BRCA1 wild-type MDA-MB-231 cells, to demonstrate its effects as a chemo- or radiosensitizing agent. PARP activity was analyzed in MDA-MB-436, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells subjected or GDC-0994 inhibitor not to NAM. Inhibition of PARP by NAM in the presence of DNA damage was examined by Alexa Fluor 488 immunofluorescence. Crystal violet assays were used to test growth inhibition and the chemo- and radiosensitization effects of NAM were investigated using clonogenic assays. Significant differences among data sets were determined using two-tailed ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. We demonstrated that NAM reduces PARP activity in vitro, and in cells subjected or
not to DNA damage, it also reduces the viability of breast cancer cell lines and synergyzes the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in MDA-MB-436 and MCF-7 cells. Downregulation buy Quisinostat of PARP1 with siRNA led to modest growth inhibition, which was further increased by cisplatin. Nicotinamide also induced radiosensitization in MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, NAM may be used as a chemo- or radiosensitizing agent regardless of the BRCA1 status in breast cancer.”
“BACKGROUND: Temporal artery biopsy (TAB) is frequently used to guide treatment for suspected temporal arteritis.
Our purpose was to determine the influence on subsequent temporal arteritis treatment, particularly the initiation, termination, or continuation of corticosteroids after a histologically negative TAB. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis from a single regional referral center on all patients undergoing TAB March 2003 through November 2010. Demographic, clinical, and surgical informations were recorded including changes in treatment based on biopsy results. RESULTS: In all, 237 Epigenetic assay patients had complete documentation for review; the average age was 71 years (range 34 to 94) and 56% were women. Thirty-six patients had 42 positive biopsies; 26 biopsies were bilateral. Positive biopsy results were defined as having marked intimal thickening, transmural inflammation, and “giant cells.” Neither length of biopsy specimen nor preoperative steroid use affected pathologic diagnosis (2.41 vs 2.38 cm, P = .46, and 52% vs 50%, P = .8, respectively). Symptoms included new-onset headache (75%), preauricular tenderness and jaw claudication (32%), erythrocyte sedimentation rate greater than 50 mm/h (60%), and a score of 3 or more using the American College of Rheumatology criteria (56%).