We identified 24 cellular genes involved in BDV G-mediated cell e

We identified 24 cellular genes involved in BDV G-mediated cell entry. Identified genes are known to participate in a broad range of distinct cellular functions, revealing a complex process associated with BDV cell entry. The siRNA-based screening strategy we have developed should be applicable to identify cellular genes contributing to cell entry mediated by surface G proteins of other viruses.”
“The vulnerability of oligodendrocytes to ischemic injury may contribute to functional loss in diseases of central white matter. Immunocytochemical methods to identify oligodendrocyte injury in experimental models rely on epitope availability, and fail to

discriminate structural changes in oligodendrocyte morphology. We previously described the use of a lentiviral vector (LV) carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) selleck products under the myelin basic protein (MBP) promoter for selective visualization of oligodendrocyte cell bodies and processes. In this study, we used LV-MBP-eGFP to label oligodendrocytes in rat cerebral white matter prior to transient focal cerebral ischemia, and examined oligodendrocyte injury

24 h, 48 h and 1 week post-reperfusion by quantifying cell survival and assaying the integrity of myelin Alvocidib mw processes. There was progressive loss of GFP+ oligodendrocytes in ischemic white matter at 24 and 48 h. Surviving GFP+ cells had non-pyknotic nuclear morphology and were terminal deoxynucleotidyl very transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-negative, but there was marked fragmentation

of myelin processes as early as 24 h after stroke. One week after stroke, we observed a restoration of GFP+ oligodendrocytes in ischemic white matter, reflected both by cell counts and by structural integrity of myelin processes. Proliferating cells were not the main source of GFP+ oligodendrocytes, as revealed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. These observations identify novel transient structural changes in oligodendrocyte cell bodies and myelinating processes, which may have consequences for white matter function after stroke. (C) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A substantial proportion of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals has cross-reactive neutralizing activity in serum, with a similar prevalence in progressors and long-term nonprogressors (LTNP). We studied whether disease progression in the face of cross-reactive neutralizing serum activity is due to fading neutralizing humoral immunity over time or to viral escape. In three LTNP and three progressors, high-titer cross-reactive HIV-1-specific neutralizing activity in serum against a multiclade pseudovirus panel was preserved during the entire clinical course of infection, even after AIDS diagnosis in progressors.

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