“A finite-population dynamic evolutionary model is presented, which shows that increasing the individual capacity of sending pre-play signals (without any pre-defined
meaning), opens a route for cooperation. The population dynamics leads individuals to discriminate between different signals and react accordingly to the signals received. The proportion of time that the population spends in different states can be calculated analytically. We show that increasing the number of different signals benefits cooperative strategies, illustrating how cooperators may take profit from a diverse signaling portfolio to forecast future behaviors and avoid being cheated by defectors. (C) 2011 Elsevier JPH203 solubility dmso Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The rubber hand illusion (RHI) occurs when a person misattributes a fake hand as his or her own hand. Previously, the RHI has been
examined with both the rubber hand and the participant’s real hand uncrossed with regards to the participant’s midline. The present study examined the strength of the illusion when the real hand, the fake hand or both hands are placed across the body midline. The illusion was induced by stroking the rubber hand and the real hand simultaneously. Asynchronous brushing served as a comparable condition since the RHI is not seen under these circumstances. Participants indicated where they felt their real hand was located by marking a sheet of paper under the table on which their unseen hand was placed. A significant RHI was observed with both the hands uncrossed. In contrast, no RHI was present when either hand was crossed over the midline. EPZ5676 mouse Additionally, a shift in hand judgment towards the midline was observed when participants crossed their real hand. These results indicate the importance of the midline in understanding representations OSI-027 in vivo of the body. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Shear stress, hormones like parathyroid and mineral elements like calcium mediate the amplitude of stimulus signal, which affects the rate of bone remodeling. The current study investigates the
theoretical effects of different metabolic doses in stimulus signal level on bone. The model was built considering the osteocyte as the sensing center mediated by coupled mechanical shear stress and some biological factors. The proposed enhanced model was developed based on previously published works dealing with different aspects of bone transduction. It describes the effects of physiological doses variations of calcium, parathyroid hormone, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 on the stimulus level sensed by osteocytes in response to applied shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow. We retained the metabolic factors (parathyroid hormone, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2) as parameters of bone cell mechanosensitivity because stimulation/inhibition of induced pathways stimulates osteogenic response in vivo.