Secondly, there is an ongoing debate whether increased plant ster

Secondly, there is an ongoing debate whether increased plant sterol concentrations

are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk or not. For this there are at least two possible explanations. First, the potential atherogenicity of increased plant sterol concentrations might be ascribed to the formation of plant sterol oxidation products (so-called oxyphytosterols) or secondly, elevated serum plant sterol concentrations should only be seen as surrogate markers for characterizing subjects with high intestinal cholesterol absorption. Finally, we discuss recent studies, which suggest that plant sterols and stanols can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects at risk, although evidence is limited and more research LDC000067 research buy is needed.”

The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of the antiplatelet agents, aspirin and eptifibatide, on the surface expression of CD40L and CD62P on platelets from patients with stable coronary artery disease.\n\nMaterials and methods: Platelet function was evaluated using standard light transmission aggregometry. Measurements of CD62P and CD40L were carried out by flow cytometry and ELISA assays.\n\nResults: All patients had the expected level of platelet aggregation inhibition in response selleck chemicals llc to 20 mu M ADP in the presence of increasing eptifibatide concentrations. Platelet AZD2014 cell line activation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or thrombin agonist peptide (TRAP) increased CD62P and CD40L surface density in the presence of aspirin by 1.9 – 2.8 -fold. Aspirin treatment did not prevent either CD62P or CD40L expression. Eptifibatide pretreatment at pharmacologically relevant concentrations blocked agonist-induced increases in CD62P platelet surface density. A marked percentage of platelets still expressed low levels of surface CD62P suggesting slight platelet activation even with potent platelet inhibition. Eptifibatide also blocked agonist-induced increases in CD40L surface expression and decreased

the percent of platelets positive for surface CD40L. Decreased expression of CD40L was due to an inhibition of CD40L translocation and not caused by enhanced shedding from the surface, as soluble CD40L (sCD40L). Eptifibatide concentrations that effectively blocked platelet aggregation correlated with total inhibition of increased CD62P and CD40L surface density.\n\nConclusion: Blockade of the GPIIb-IIIa receptor on platelets from coronary artery disease patients may have significant bearing on reducing proinflammatory and procoagulant events mediated by CD62P and sCD40L. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Object. Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPEs) are rare WHO Grade I tumors found in the conus medullaris, cauda equina, and filum terminale.

“Various studies have shown that lycopene, a non-provitami

“Various studies have shown that lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid, exerts antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities in PCI-34051 cell line different in vitro and in vivo systems. However, the results concerning its chemopreventive potential on rat hepatocarcinogenesis are ambiguous. The aim of the present study was to investigate the

antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of dietary tomato oleoresin adjusted to lycopene concentration at 30, 100 or 300ppm (administered 2 weeks before and during or 8 weeks after carcinogen exposure) on liver of male Wistar rats treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN), respectively. The level of DNA damage in liver cells and the development of putative preneoplastic single hepatocytes, minifoci and foci of altered hepatocytes (FHA) positive for glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) were used as endpoints. Significant reduction of DNA damage was detected when the highest lycopene concentration was administered before and

during the DEN exposure (20 mg/kg). However, the results also showed that lycopene consumption did not reduce cell proliferation in normal hepatocytes or the growth of initiated hepatocytes into minifoci positive for GST-P during early regenerative response after 70% partial hepatectomy, or the number and area of GST-P positive FHA induced by DEN (100 mg/ kg) at the end of week 10. Taken together, the data suggest a chemopreventive effect of tomato oleoresin against DNA damage induced by DEN but no clear effectiveness in initiating or promoting phases of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Veliparib cell line (c) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Sickle-cell disease is one of the most common severe monogenic disorders in the world. Haemoglobin polymerisation, leading to erythrocyte rigidity

and vaso-occlusion, is central to the pathophysiology of this disease, although the SB273005 in vivo importance of chronic anaemia, haemolysis, and vasculopathy has been established. Clinical management is basic and few treatments have a robust evidence base. One of the main problems of sickle-cell disease in children is the development of cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, and the role of blood transfusion and hydroxycarbamide for prevention of these complications is starting to be understood. Recurrent episodes of vaso-occlusion and inflammation result in progressive damage to most organs, including the brain, kidneys, lungs, bones, and cardiovascular system, which becomes apparent with increasing age. Most people with sickle-cell disease live in Africa, where little is known about this disease; however, we do know that the disorder follows a more severe clinical course in Africa than for the rest of the world and that infectious diseases have a role in causing this increased severity of sickle-cell disease.

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASO) were infused into each stru

Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASO) were infused into each structure to knock down the expression of the immediate-early gene zif268, which is known to be required for memory reconsolidation. Control infusions used missense oligodeoxynucleotides find more (MSO). The effects of zif268 knockdown were measured in two complementary paradigms widely

used to assess the impact of drug-paired CSs upon drug seeking: the acquisition of a new instrumental response with conditioned reinforcement and conditioned place preference. The results show that both intranucleus accumbens core and intrabasolateral amygdala zif268 ASO infusions at memory reactivation impaired the reconsolidation of the memory underlying a cocaine-conditioned place preference. However, knockdown of zif268 in the nucleus accumbens at memory reactivation had no effect on the memory underlying the conditioned reinforcing properties of the cocaine-paired CS measured subsequently, and this is in contrast to the marked impairment observed previously following intrabasolateral amygdala zif268 ASO infusions. These results suggest that both the basolateral

amygdala and nucleus accumbens core are key structures within limbic cortical-striatal circuitry where reconsolidation of a cue-drug memory occurs. However reconsolidation of memory representations R788 in vitro formed during Pavlovian conditioning are differentially localized in each site.”
“The fossil record P505-15 chemical structure of early feathers has relied on carbonized compressions that lack fine structural detail. Specimens in amber are preserved in greater detail, but they are rare. Late Cretaceous coal-rich strata from western Canada provide the richest and most diverse Mesozoic feather assemblage yet reported from amber. The fossils include primitive structures closely matching the protofeathers of nonavian dinosaurs, offering new insights into their structure and function. Additional derived morphologies confirm that plumage specialized for flight and underwater diving

had evolved in Late Cretaceous birds. Because amber preserves feather structure and pigmentation in unmatched detail, these fossils provide novel insights regarding feather evolution.”
“Background Dicycloplatin is a relatively safe third generation platinum-complex anti-cancer drug. The present study focused on the effects of dicycloplatin on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC).\n\nMethods Proliferation of HASMC and HAEC, DNA content, and cellular levels of proliferation- and apoptosis-related proteins were assessed using the (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) (MTS) assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting assays, respectively.

Hence, the Hopkins’ host selection principle does not seem to be

Hence, the Hopkins’ host selection principle does not seem to be AZD6094 mw applicable in this species.\n\n4. Based on recent insights on how accuracy of environmental versus genetic information should affect the control of developmental switches, the conditions that could favour the use of juvenile cues in oviposition decisions are discussed. Although the Hopkins’

host selection hypothesis cannot be completely ruled out, we argue that the circumstances required for it to be adaptive are so specific that it should not be invoked as a general hypothesis for host selection in plant-feeding insects.”
“Nine Gram – positive bacterial strains designated as RH-1 to RH-9 were isolated from legumes rhizospheric soil and characterized for plant growth promoting (PGP) activities in legume and cereal crops as well as detailed morphological, phenotypic and biochemical studies. The strains were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and chemotaxonomic traits.

Based on comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the strains showed highest similarity (97.9-99.8%) to the genus Bacillus. In vitro growth promoting assay indicated that the strain RH-5 proved potential selleck inhibitor PGPR by solubilizing highest amount of inorganic P (141 mu g mL(-1)), positive for nifH gene (+) and produced indole acetic acid (IAA; 0.82 mu g mL(-1)) followed by strain RH-2. Phosphorus solubilization in broth culture was associated with significant drop in pH by the strain RH-5 from 7.0 to 4.8. These two strains were further evaluated for

plant growth promotion in beans (mung bean; Vigna radiate, mash bean; Vigna mungo) and wheat (Triticum aestivium) under axenic condition. The strain RH-5 proved the best PGPR by increasing crops biomass and grains (wheat; 40-45%, beans; 50%) over un-inoculated control. The chemotaxonomic data (pre dominant menaquinone system: MK-7, DNA G + C content: 40-41 mol%, major cellular fatty acid: anteiso-C-15:0) also supported the affiliation of both strains to the genus Bacillus. Phenotypic characterization showed that the strain RH-5 tolerated temperature: 50 degrees C, pH: 10 and NaCl: 9%. Phylogenic and genotypic analysis showed the association of strains RH-5 and RH-2 with genus Bacillus having single phylitic PXD101 supplier lines to Bacilus gibsonii and Bacillus subtilis.”
“Studies have indicated significant pubertal-related differences in hormonal stress reactivity. We report here that prepubertal (30 days) mate rats display a more protracted stress-induced corticosterone response than adults (70 days), despite showing relatively similar levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Additionally, we show that adrenal expression of the ACTH receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor (Mc2r), is higher in prepubertal compared to adult animals, and that expression of melanocortin receptor accessory protein (Mrap), a molecule that chaperones MC2R to the cell surface, is greater in prepubertal males following stress.

Conclusions: Although exacerbations become more frequent and

\n\nConclusions: Although exacerbations become more frequent and more severe as COPD progresses, the rate at which they occur appears to reflect an independent susceptibility phenotype. This has implications for the targeting of exacerbation-prevention strategies across the spectrum of disease severity. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; number, NCT00292552.)\n\nN Engl J Med 2010;363:1128-38.”
“Compared to white women, lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in middle-aged Vietnamese immigrants is due to reduced trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), which in turn

is associated with greater trabecular separation along with lower estrogen levels.\n\nThe check details epidemiology of osteoporosis in Asian populations is still poorly known, but we previously found a deficit in lumbar spine aBMD among postmenopausal Southeast Asian women, compared to white women, that persisted after correction for bone size. This issue was revisited using more sophisticated imaging techniques.\n\nTwenty Vietnamese immigrants (age, 44-79 years) were compared to 162 same-aged white women with respect to aBMD at the hip, spine and wrist, vBMD at the hip and spine by quantitative computed tomography and vBMD and bone microstructure at the ultradistal radius by high-resolution pQCT. Bone turnover and sex

steroid levels were assessed in a subset (20 Vietnamese and 40 white women).\n\nThe aBMD was lower FK866 in vivo at all sites among the Vietnamese women, but femoral neck vBMD did not differ from middle-aged white women. Significant differences in lumbar spine and ultradistal radius vBMD in the Vietnamese immigrants were due to lower trabecular vBMD, which was associated with increased trabecular separation. Bone resorption

was elevated and bone formation depressed among the Vietnamese immigrants, although trends were not statistically significant. Serum estradiol was positively associated with trabecular vBMD in the Vietnamese women, but their estrogen levels were dramatically lower compared to white women.\n\nAlthough reported discrepancies in aBMD among Asian Acalabrutinib clinical trial women are mainly an artifact of smaller bone size, we identified a specific deficit in the trabecular bone among a sample of Vietnamese immigrants that may be related to low estrogen levels and which needs further study.”
“Background: Disrupted cholesterol regulation leading to increased circulating and membrane cholesterol levels is implicated in many age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and cancer. In vitro and ex vivo cellular plasmalogen deficiency models have been shown to exhibit impaired intra-and extra-cellular processing of cholesterol.

Such a scenario could explain how spreading and migration are ori

Such a scenario could explain how spreading and migration are oriented by the rigidity of the cell environment.”
“Some aspects of the functional, morphological, and morphometrical characteristics of chronic progressive nephropathy occurring in 18- to 26-month-old male rats and in 3-month-old control rats were studied. Rats with chronic progressive nephropathy were proteinuric and showed a slight increase in serum creatinine

and no changes in blood pressure. The morphological changes were studied by light microscopy, high-resolution light microscopy, and electron microscopy. They showed focal and segmental or global glomerulosclerosis, the Compound C three types of atrophic tubules (“classic,” “thyroid-like,” and “endocrine”) described by Nadasdy et al, as well as interstitial fibrosis with mononuclear cell infiltrates. On certain occasions, small vessels showed hyalinosis. Glomerular morphometrical studies showed a biphasic pattern in the glomeruli progressing toward obsolescence. Vascular morphometrical studies showed significant increase in media wall thickness and media cross-sectional area in

the 18- to 26-month-old JQ-EZ-05 price rats. These results support the hypothesis that changes in the vascular system are not of utmost importance in the pathogenesis of chronic progressive nephropathy, and that glomerular sequential changes seem to be of paramount significance in the progression of the disease.”
“Sarcomas are frequent tumors in children and young adults that, despite a relative chemosensitivity, show high relapse rates with up to 80% of metastatic patients

dying in 5 years from diagnosis. The real ontogeny of sarcomas is still debated and evidences suggest they may derive from precursors identified within mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) fractions. Recent studies on sarcoma microenvironment additionally LY2157299 ic50 indicated that MSC could take active part in generation of a supportive stroma. Based on this knowledge, we conceived to use modified MSC to deliver tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) targeting different sarcoma histotypes. Gene modified MSC expressing TRAIL were cocultured with different osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Ewing’s Sarcoma (ES) cell lines assessing viability and caspase-8 activation. An in vivo model focused on ES was then implemented considering the impact of MSCTRAIL on tumor size, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. MSC expressing TRAIL induced significantly high apoptosis in all tested lines. Sarcoma death was specifically associated with caspase-8 activation starting from 8 hours of coculture with MSC-TRAIL. When injected into pre-established ES xenotransplants, MSC-TRAIL persisted within its stroma, causing significant tumor apoptosis versus control groups. Additional histological and in vitro studies reveal that MSC-TRAIL could also exert potent antiangiogenic functions.

“In irrigated

rice paddies, episodic release of ni

“In irrigated

rice paddies, episodic release of nitrous oxide (N2O) from the soil to the atmosphere has been observed during the first flood irrigation, but the biogeochemical mechanisms underlying these emissions remain unclear. To elucidate both microbial pathways of N2O production, consumption and emission processes of N2O from soil surfaces, we analyzed isotopomer ratios (bulk nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, delta N-15(bulk) and delta O-18, and intramolecular N-15 site preference, SP) of surface-emitted N2O and N2O in soil gas from paddy fields in Japan at the beginning of irrigation. Results indicate that surface-emitted N2O is produced at shallow depths above the rising groundwater table, and that it is emitted by diffusive transport through Selleck Emricasan air-filled soil pores. Immediately after soil surfaces are submerged, N2O accumulates in the soil because of the low diffusivity and high solubility of N2O in water. Isotopomer analysis revealed that high N2O emissions during the flooding process A-1155463 resulted mainly from N2O production by bacterial denitrification (nitrate reduction). Moreover, as soil submergence progressed, declining soil NO concentration promoted the use of N2O as an electron

acceptor. Thereby, most of the N2O was reduced to N-2. N2O emissions were increased by nitrogen fertilizer application before irrigation. The applied nitrogen fertilizer might enhance N2O production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The smallscale yellowfin, Plagiognathops microlepis is the only one species in the genus Plagiognathops. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the P. microlepis. The complete mitogenome was 16,623 bp in size, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes,

selleck inhibitor and 1 control region. It has the typical circular molecule structure of vertebrate’s mitochondrial genome. The whole base composition was estimated to be 30.60% A, 25.19% T, 27.32% C and 16.89% G with AT bias of 55.79%. The complete mitogenome of P. microlepis provides the basis for preservation of genetic resources and genetic breeding studies on this species.”
“Previous microscopy-based studies in the eastern English Channel have revealed it to be a productive meso-eutrophic coastal ecosystem, characterized by strong repeating patterns in microplankton succession. The present study examines the seasonal structure of the entire protistan community from March 2011 to July 2013, using tag pyrosequencing of the V2-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene. A total of 1242 OTUs and 28 high-level taxonomic groups, which included previously undetected taxa in the area, were identified. The detected OTUs were considered according to taxon-specific traits, which included their trophic role, abundance and specialization level.

Considering clinical flexibility, ” Lac = -0 259 + v-Lac x 0 996″

Considering clinical flexibility, ” Lac = -0.259 + v-Lac x 0.996″ might be more useful while avoiding a time-consuming and invasive procedure. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: Bilateral femoral shaft fractures have been reported CP-456773 inhibitor to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality; however, the value of these studies is limited due to small sample sizes and the timing of these studies before the establishment of damage control orthopaedics. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of morbidity and mortality in patients with bilateral

vs. unilateral femoral shaft fractures in the era of damage control orthopaedics.\n\nMethods: Retrospective analysis of the TraumaRegister DGU from 2002 to 2005. Inclusion criteria were uni- or bilateral femoral shaft fractures and complete demographic data documentation. Univariate data analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed with SPSS.\n\nResults: Between 2002 and 2005, 776 patients with unilateral and 118 patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures were identified. Patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures had a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (29.5 vs. 25.7 points), a significantly higher incidence of pulmonary (34.7% vs. 20.6%)

and multiple organ failure (25.0% vs. 14.6%) as well as a significantly higher mortality rate (16.9% vs. 9.4%). In the overall patient population, early total care (ETC) was significantly more often performed in patients with unilateral femoral shaft fractures (50.9% vs. 33.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between bilateral femoral shaft fractures and

multiple organ failure or mortality; however, bilateral femoral shaft fractures are an independent risk factor for pulmonary failure. Subgroup analysis revealed that the impact of the bilateral femoral shaft fracture was especially pronounced in patients with an ISS < 25 points.\n\nDiscussion: Bilateral femoral shaft fractures are an independent risk factor for pulmonary failure but not for multiple organ C59 molecular weight failure or mortality. The impact of the additional femoral shaft fracture for pulmonary failure appears to be especially pronounced in the less severely injured patients, whose injuries are often underestimated when stratified with the ISS. Patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures have significantly more often severe abdominal injuries as well as severe blood loss which may account for the increased mortality rate. Therefore, the presence of bilateral femoral shaft fractures should be recognised as an increased risk for systemic complications. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The association between renal dysplasia and minor malformations of the external ear is weak. However, there is a remarkable list of syndromes that link the kidney to the inner ear.

In 13 cases, clinical rejection of the pancreas was diagnosed sim

In 13 cases, clinical rejection of the pancreas was diagnosed simultaneously, and two of these were biopsy proven MRT67307 NF-��B inhibitor and were positive for C4d immunostaining. Multivariate analysis identified only one significant risk factor: Female patients were three times more likely to experience AMR. Nearly all early episodes resolved with

treatment and did not predict graft loss, but multivariate Cox models revealed that late AMR episodes more than tripled the risk for kidney and pancreas graft loss; therefore, new strategies are needed to prevent and to treat late AMR in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant recipients.”
“The repeated frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI) in ovarian cancer (OC) ranges from 0% to 50%. Most MSI studies including OC patients have involved relatively small number of tumors, a wide range of different MSI markers, different patient characteristics, and varying criteria for defining tumors

as MSI positive. Thus, no conclusive evidence about MSI occurrence in OC has been provided and the large variation has made interpretation of these previous studies difficult. The majority of MSI studies have been performed on OC cases with few borderline ovarian tumor (BOT) cases included. Few BOT studies showed no selleck screening library evidence of MSI, but in one study the frequency of MSI was 27.7% with all tumors of serous type, suggesting that MSI may play a role in the development of serous BOT. The aim of

our study was to determine the frequency of MSI using a panel of 16 dinucleotide markers: TP53, D17S250, CACNLB1, D18S58, D19S49, DXS538, DXS454, D5S117, D5S107, D6S284, D6S305, D9S171, D9S15, D11S554, D11S29, and D13S272 in tissue from patients with OC or BOT and to correlate the presence of MSI at these markers with the clinical information, such as FIGO stage, histological type, age, and survival in OC. The overall frequencies of MSI were within 2-10%. We observed MSI at different loci and with different extent (2.3-9.8%) in the different histopathological types. In both BOT and OC cases, we observed that all high MK-2206 price MSI (MSI-H) were of serous type. No significant difference in disease specific survival was found between stage III/IV OC patients who presented MSI compared to patients being microsatellite stable (MSS) (p = 0.72). In conclusion, we found no association to any of the clinical parameters evaluated, although a tendency of a higher frequency of MSI was observed among serous OC.”
“Background: Resveratrol has been reported to have potential chemopreventive and apoptosis-inducing properties in a variety of tumor cell lines. Objective: In this study, to investigate the effects of resveratrol on protein kinase C (PKC) activity and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells, we used HT-29 cells and examined the PKC alpha and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

(C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“Emerging evide

(C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Emerging evidence indicates

that early life exposures influence adult health outcomes Autophagy inhibitor library and there is cause to hypothesise a role for physical activity (PA) in childhood as a protective factor in adult depression. This study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported levels of PA in childhood and self-reported depressive illness. Lifetime depression and levels of physical activity (low/high) in childhood (<15 yr) were ascertained by self-report in 2152 adults (20-97 yr) participating in an ongoing epidemiological study in south-eastern Australia. Data were collected between 2000 and 2006. In this sample, 141 women (18.9%) and 169 men (12.0%) reported ever having a depressive episode. Low PA in childhood was associated with an increased risk of reporting depression in adulthood (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.32-2.17, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, gender and adult PA attenuated the relationship somewhat (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.01-1.78, p=0.04), however further adjustment for SES or country of birth did not affect this relationship. In this community-based study, lower levels of self-reported PA in childhood were associated with a 35% increase in odds for self-reported depression in adulthood. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that lower levels of PA in childhood may be a risk factor

for adult depression. BV-6 (C) 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We report a method for preparation of mammalian cell-enclosing hydrogel particles through horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalysed hydrogelation by dropping cell-suspending aqueous solution into an aqueous coagulation solution. An aqueous solution of 10% (w/v) gelatin derivative possessing phenolic

hydroxyl (Ph) moieties (Gelatin-Ph), HepG2 cells and 10 U/mL HRP was dropped into an aqueous coagulation solution containing 1mM H2O2. The resultant hydrogel formed through the HRP-catalysed reaction consuming H2O2 had a spherical shape. The sphericity decreased with decreasing concentrations of Gelatin-Ph, HRP and H2O2. The thickness Wnt inhibitor of the hydrogel membrane layer of the hydrogel particles could be controlled by altering incubation time in the H2O2 solution. The cells encapsulated in the particles with a thinner hydrogel membrane grew faster. These results demonstrate that we successfully established the method of cell-encapsulation in hydrogel particles based on dropping aqueous polymer solution into aqueous coagulation solution through HRP-catalysed reaction.”
“Abnormalities in the huntingtin protein (Htt) are associated with Huntington’s disease. Despite its importance, the function of Htt is largely unknown. We show that Htt is required for normal chemotaxis and cytokinesis in Dictyostelium discoideum.