The observed changes in the optoelectronic properties are attributed to the modification in the atomic bonding structures, which were induced by N incorporation, accompanied by an increase in the sp(2) carbon bonding configurations and their relative disorder. The electrical conductivity variation was interpreted in terms of local effects on the nature and energy distribution of pi and pi* states. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3462442]“
(Solanum tuberosum L.) periderm is composed of the meristematic phellogen that gives rise to an external layer of suberized phellem cells (the skin) and the internal parenchyma-like phelloderm. The continuous addition of new skin layers and the sloughing of old surface SRT2104 order layers during tuber maturation results in smooth, shiny skin. However, smooth-skin varieties frequently develop unsightly russeting in response to high soil temperatures. Microscopic observation of microtubers exposed to high temperatures (37 degrees C) suggested heat-enhanced development and accumulation of suberized skin-cell layers. To identify the genes involved in the periderm response to heat stress, Selleck PXD101 skin and phelloderm samples collected separately from immature tubers exposed to high soil temperatures (33 degrees C) and controls were subjected to transcriptome profiling using a potato
cDNA array. As expected, the major functional group that was differentially expressed SBE-β-CD in both skin and phelloderm consisted of stress-related genes; however, while the major up-regulated phelloderm genes coded for heat-shock proteins, many of the skin’s most up-regulated sequences were similar to genes involved in the development of protective/symbiotic membranes during plant-microbe interactions.
The primary activities regulated by differentially expressed peridermal transcription factors were response to stress (33%) and cell proliferation and differentiation (28%), possibly reflecting the major processes occurring in the heat-treated periderm and implying the integrated activity of the stress response and tissue development. Accumulating data suggest that the periderm, a defensive tissue, responds to heat stress by enhancing the production and accumulation of periderm/skin layers to create a thick protective cover. Skin russeting may be an indirect outcome; upon continued expansion of the tuber, the inflexible skin cracks while new layers are produced below it, resulting in a rough skin texture.”
“Sacral neuromodulation is an established treatment modality for urge incontinence, urinary retention, and urgency/frequency syndromes. Potential indications as well as approved indications will be reviewed with emphasis on clinical characteristics that predict success. Therapeutic trial-either a peripheral nerve evaluation or a staged implant-remains the most accurate predictor of success.