Secondly, there is an ongoing debate whether increased plant sterol concentrations
are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk or not. For this there are at least two possible explanations. First, the potential atherogenicity of increased plant sterol concentrations might be ascribed to the formation of plant sterol oxidation products (so-called oxyphytosterols) or secondly, elevated serum plant sterol concentrations should only be seen as surrogate markers for characterizing subjects with high intestinal cholesterol absorption. Finally, we discuss recent studies, which suggest that plant sterols and stanols can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects at risk, although evidence is limited and more research LDC000067 research buy is needed.”
The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of the antiplatelet agents, aspirin and eptifibatide, on the surface expression of CD40L and CD62P on platelets from patients with stable coronary artery disease.\n\nMaterials and methods: Platelet function was evaluated using standard light transmission aggregometry. Measurements of CD62P and CD40L were carried out by flow cytometry and ELISA assays.\n\nResults: All patients had the expected level of platelet aggregation inhibition in response selleck chemicals llc to 20 mu M ADP in the presence of increasing eptifibatide concentrations. Platelet AZD2014 cell line activation by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or thrombin agonist peptide (TRAP) increased CD62P and CD40L surface density in the presence of aspirin by 1.9 – 2.8 -fold. Aspirin treatment did not prevent either CD62P or CD40L expression. Eptifibatide pretreatment at pharmacologically relevant concentrations blocked agonist-induced increases in CD62P platelet surface density. A marked percentage of platelets still expressed low levels of surface CD62P suggesting slight platelet activation even with potent platelet inhibition. Eptifibatide also blocked agonist-induced increases in CD40L surface expression and decreased
the percent of platelets positive for surface CD40L. Decreased expression of CD40L was due to an inhibition of CD40L translocation and not caused by enhanced shedding from the surface, as soluble CD40L (sCD40L). Eptifibatide concentrations that effectively blocked platelet aggregation correlated with total inhibition of increased CD62P and CD40L surface density.\n\nConclusion: Blockade of the GPIIb-IIIa receptor on platelets from coronary artery disease patients may have significant bearing on reducing proinflammatory and procoagulant events mediated by CD62P and sCD40L. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Object. Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPEs) are rare WHO Grade I tumors found in the conus medullaris, cauda equina, and filum terminale.