Study Design Demographic and clinical

\n\nStudy Design. Demographic and clinical click here data of 8 patients with foreign body granulomas

containing the characteristic microscopic appearance of hydroxyapatite microspheres were studied. Analysis of the microspheres of 1 case was carried out by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to confirm the calcium and phosphorus content.\n\nResults. The clinical and microscopic appearance of Radiesse-induced foreign body granulomas is illustrated and discussed.\n\nConclusions. Foreign body granulomas containing hydroxyapatite microspheres in patients receiving treatment with the cosmetic filler Radiesse have a characteristic microscopic appearance. Oral Radiesse-induced nodules occur more often in older women, most commonly in the lips and the mandibular labial vestibule. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2012;114:107-111)”
“Exposure to blood and body fluids is an occupational hazard in healthcare. Although the potential for blood-borne virus transmission through needlestick injury has been widely studied, the risk of this occurring through spatter contamination from safety-needle syringes is not well understood. This report examines this risk from three commonly used safety needles and suggests that this presents

a new and significant hazard. Further work should be commissioned to quantify this hazard and determine which type of safety needle would minimize spatter contamination following syringe discharge and safety activation. Crown Copyright (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of the Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.”
“Naked Galardin cell line barley is an underutilized crop that is suitable for the production of functional food: it contains remarkable amounts of beta-glucans, which are well known for their blood cholesterol and short-time blood sugar regulating properties and their impact on weight regulation. The aim of the present work was to develop naked barley bread with satisfying sensory characteristics and good baking qualities that could augment the intake

of dietary fiber, especially beta-glucans and therefore meet the requirements of the EFSA health claim for beta-glucans.\n\nThe results of the multiple response optimization suggest that the elevated use of water, malt flour and margarine in pure naked CSF-1R inhibitor barley bread augment the sensory attractiveness whereas the use of acidifier and pre-gelatinized flour has a negative effect on the sensory quality. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A novel antibacterial polymer, coated with a silver-containing organic composite antibacterial agent, was dispersed in a self-cured acrylic resin. Residual viable cell count of each oral bacterial and fungal species cultivated on acrylic resin specimens containing the antibacterial polymer was significantly decreased when compared to those cultivated on specimens prepared from untreated polymer.

In an in vitro model of wound contraction,

lactoferrin pr

In an in vitro model of wound contraction,

lactoferrin promoted fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. These observations indicate that lactoferrin supports multiple biological processes involved in wound healing.”
“Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to systemic metabolic irregularities and obesity-linked metabolic disorders. Orosomucoid (ORM), an acute phase reactant protein, was shown to be produced in response to metabolic and inflammatory signals in the adipose tissue of obese mice, which protects them from severe inflammation and subsequent check details metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we examined whether there are site-specific differences between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT, respectively) ORM gene and protein expression from individuals with a wide range of obesity and the relationship between expressed and circulating ORM levels and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and pro- and anti-inflammatory markers and adipokines. The level of circulating ORM correlated positively with BMI, body fat mass, and serum leptin. It also correlated with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR values and C-reactive protein in men. There were no site-specific differences in ORM mRNA and protein expression

between VAT and SAT, nor did we find a relationship between circulating ORM levels and its mRNA expression in either fat depot. We found that ORM mRNA expression correlated with mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and adiponectin in VAT, and with TNF-alpha and adiponectin in SAT. These observations are the first description linking adipose tissue ORM and pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules in humans. click here The close

links of ORM and measures of adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation in humans reinforce previous experimental data and warrant further studies to explore a possible role of ORM in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic derangements.”
“The quality and ease of proteomics analysis depends on the performance of the analytical tools used, and thus of the performances of the protein separation tools used to deconvolute complex protein samples. Among protein samples, membrane proteins are one of the most difficult sample classes, because of their hydrophobicity and embedment in the lipid bilayers. This review deals with the recent progresses and advances made in the separation BLZ945 of membrane proteins by 2-DE separating only denatured proteins. Traditional 2-D methods, i.e., methods using IEF in the first dimension are compared to methods using only zone electrophoresis in both dimensions, i.e., electrophoresis in the presence of cationic or anionic detergents. The overall performances and fields of application of both types of method is critically examined, as are future prospects for this field.”
“Conazoles are fungicides used to control fungal growth in environmental settings and to treat humans with fungal infections.


“Background


“Background. learn more Cyclic recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) play a key role in the pathomechanism of acute lung injury (ALI)

leading to respiration-dependent oscillations of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pa-O2). These Pa-O2 oscillations could also be forwarded to the cerebral microcirculation.\n\nMethods. In 12 pigs, partial pressure of oxygen was measured in the thoracic aorta (Pa-O2) and subcortical cerebral tissue (Pbr(O2)). Cerebral cortical haemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sbr(O2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and peripheral haemoglobin saturation (Sp(O2)) were assessed by spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Measurements at different fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2) were performed at baseline and during cyclic R/D. Statistics: frequency domain analysis, the Mann-Whitney test, linear models to test the influence of Pa-O2 and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) oscillations on cerebral measurements.\n\nResults. Parameters [mean (SD)] remained stable during baseline. Pa-O2 oscillations [10.6 (8) kPa, phase(reference)], systemic arterial pressure (SAP) oscillations [20 (9) mm Hg, phase(PaO2-SAP)-33 (72)degrees], and Sp(O2) oscillations [1.9 (1.7)%, phase(PaO2-SpO2) 264 (72)degrees] were detected during lung R/D at FIO2 1.0. Pa-O2 oscillations decreased [2.7 (3.5)

kPa, P=0.0008] and Sp(O2) oscillations increased [6.8 (3.9)%, P=0.0014] at FIO2 0.3. In the brain, synchronized Pbr(O2) oscillations [0.6 (0.4) kPa, phase(PaO2-PbrO2) 90 (39)degrees], Sapitinib in vitro Sbr(O2) oscillations [4.1 (1.5)%, phase(PaO2-SbrO2) 182 (54)degrees], and CBF oscillations [198 (176) AU, phase(PaO2-CBF) 201 (63)degrees] occurred that were dependent on Pa-O2 and SAP oscillations.\n\nConclusions. Pa-O2 oscillations caused by cyclic R/D are transmitted

to the cerebral microcirculation in a porcine model of ALI. These cyclic oxygen alterations could play a role in the crosstalk of acute lung and brain injury.”
“As patients near the end of life, bereaved family members provide an important source of evaluation of the care they receive. A study was conducted to identify which processes of care were associated with greater satisfaction with hospice services from the perception of bereaved family members. A total of 116,974 surveys from 819 hospices JQ-EZ-05 solubility dmso in the United States were obtained via the 2005 Family Evaluation of Hospice Care, an online repository of surveys of bereaved family members’ perceptions of the quality of hospice care maintained by the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. Overall satisfaction was dichotomized as “excellent” vs. “other” (very good, good, fair, and poor). Using multivariate logistic regression, the association between overall satisfaction and the individual item problem scores that compose the Family Evaluation of Hospice Care were examined.

Immunohistochemical analysis of DLC1 expression was carried out i

Immunohistochemical analysis of DLC1 expression was carried out in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=214), dysplasia (n=51), hyperplastic squamous mucosa (n=45), and histologically normal oral LY2606368 inhibitor tissues (n=80), and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease prognosis over 91 months for oral squamous cell carcinomas. Loss of DLC1 expression was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (64%), oral dysplasia (31%), hyperplastic squamous mucosa (22%), and normal mucosa

(16%). Significant loss of DLC1 expression was observed in oral squamous cell carcinomas as compared with dysplasia (P<0.001, odds ratio=3.8, 95% CI=2.0-7.3), suggesting it may be an important event involved in cancer progression. Among oral squamous cell carcinomas, the loss of DLC1 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis (P=0.021, LY3023414 in vivo hazards ratio (HR)=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.9). Multivariate analysis revealed loss of DLC1 (P=0.023, HR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.9) and histopathological grade (P=0.015, HR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.7) to be independent predictors for disease-free survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in comparison with known prognostic factors,

viz, tumor stage, nodal status, and overall stage. Loss of DLC1 expression emerged as an important biomarker for predicting patients diagnosed with oral dysplasia at high risk of transformation upon future validation in longitudinal studies. Loss of DLC1 expression is a poor prognostic marker for oral OSI-906 datasheet squamous cell carcinoma patients.

Modern Pathology (2012) 25, 14-25; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2011.145; published online 14 October 2011″
“Background. The number of adolescent and adult patients with congenital heart disease undergoing heart transplantation is increasing. We aimed to better define the characteristics of these patients and their survival after transplantation.\n\nMethods. We describe a group of patients with end-stage heart failure owing to congenital heart disease undergoing heart transplantation at a single tertiary center and compare their short- and long-term survival with a group of matched controls with dilated cardiomyopathy and the entire cohort of transplanted patients at our center.\n\nResults. Between 1985 and 2006, a total of 322 orthotopic heart transplantations were performed at our center. Thirteen patients (mean age, 27.5 years) had a diagnosis of congenital heart disease with a wide spectrum of lesions. The survival of these 13 patients was 85% at 30 days, 1, 5, and 10 years and 77% at 20 years, which did not differ significantly to the short- and long-term survival of the entire cohort of patients with heart transplantation and to the survival of age-matched controls with dilated cardiomyopathy.\n\nConclusion.

We deem that the main pathophsyologic mechanism underlining this

We deem that the main pathophsyologic mechanism underlining this phenomenon is a gradual and irreversible decline in spinal function related to those hemodynamic modifications induced by the fistula and to the persistence

of a state of anatomofunctional deficiency of the spinal venous drainage. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Corals rely on stored energy reserves (i.e., lipids, carbohydrates, and protein) to survive bleaching events. To better understand the physiological implications BMS-345541 of coral bleaching on lipid catabolism and/or synthesis, we measured the delta C-13 of coral total lipids (delta C-13(TL)) in experimentally bleached (treatment) and non-bleached (control) Porites compressa and Montipora

capitata corals immediately after bleaching and after 1.5 and 4 months of recovery on the reef. Overall delta C-13(TL) values in treatment corals were significantly lower than in control corals because of a 1.9 and 3.4aEuro AZD0530 degrees decrease in delta C-13(TL) immediately after bleaching in P. compressa and M. capitata, respectively. The decrease in delta C-13(TL) coincided with decreases in total lipid concentration, indicating that corals catabolized delta C-13-enriched lipids. Since storage lipids are primarily depleted during bleaching, we hypothesize that they are isotopically enriched relative to other lipid classes. This work further helps clarify our understanding of changes to coral metabolism and biogeochemistry when bleached and helps elucidate how lipid classes may influence recovery from bleaching and ultimately coral survival.”
“Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential for normal growth, patterning, and homeostasis of many tissues in diverse check details organisms, and is misregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer. Cytoplasmic Hedgehog signaling is activated by multisite phosphorylation of the seven-pass transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in its cytoplasmic C-terminus. Aside from a short membrane-proximal stretch, the sequence of the C-terminus

is highly divergent in different phyla, and the evidence suggests that the precise mechanism of Smo activation and transduction of the signal to downstream effectors also differs. To clarify the conserved role of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) in Smo regulation, we mapped four clusters of phosphorylation sites in the membrane-proximal C-terminus of Drosophila Smo that are phosphorylated by Gprk2, one of the two fly GRKs. Phosphorylation at these sites enhances Smo dimerization and increases but is not essential for Smo activity. Three of these clusters overlap with regulatory phosphorylation sites in mouse Smo and are highly conserved throughout the bilaterian lineages, suggesting that they serve a common function.

The most effective modification

The most effective modification CAL-101 concentration of VMPP was initial position of fingers 12 cm apart (x=+/- 6) on the x-axis, 2 cm anteriorly from the posterior fourchette (y=+2) on the

y-axis with 1cm movement of both finger and thumb toward the midline on the x-axis (Delta x=1) with no movement on the y-axis (Delta y=0). Conclusions In a biomechanical assessment with simulation of vaginal delivery, exact placement of fingertips on the perineal skin, together with their co-ordinated movement, plays an important role in the extent of reduction of perineal tension.”
“STAR/StarD1, part of a protein complex, mediates the transport of cholesterol from the outer to inner mitochondrial membrane, which is the rate-limiting step for steroidogenesis, and where steroid hormone synthesis begins. Herein, we examined the role of oxidant-sensitive p38 MAPKs in the regulation of STAR gene transcription, using model steroidogenic cell lines. Our data

indicate that oxidant activation of p38 MAPK exhibits a negative regulatory role in the induction of functional expression of STAR, as evidenced by enhanced induction of STAR (mRNA/protein) expression and increased steroidogenesis during pharmacological VX-680 inhibition of p38 MAPK or in cells with increased transient overexpression of a dominant-negative (dn) form of p38 MAPK alpha or p38 MAPK beta. Studies with rat Star-promoter demonstrated that overexpression of p38 MAPK alpha-wt, -beta, or -gamma significantly reduced both basal and cAMP-sensitive promoter activity. In contrast, overexpression of p38 MAPK alpha-dn, -beta, or -gamma enhanced the Star promoter activity under basal conditions and in response to cAMP stimulation. Use of various constitutively active and dn constructs and designer knock-out cell lines demonstrated

that MKK3 and MKK6, the upstream activators of p38 MAPKs, play a role in p38 MAPK alpha-mediated inhibition of Star promoter activity. In addition, our studies raised the possibility of CREB being a potential target of the p38 MAPK inhibitory effect on Star promoter activity. Collectively, these data provide novel mechanistic information about how oxidant-sensitive p38 MAPKs, particularly Citarinostat datasheet p38 MAPK alpha, contribute to the negative regulation of Star gene expression and inhibit steroidogenesis.”
“MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs of similar to 22 nucleotides that have been shown to play regulatory role by negatively affecting the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level. Information of miRNAs on some important crops like soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice, etc. are available, but no study on heat-responsive novel miRNAs has yet been reported in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Spectra were compared to the reference spectrum of bone via corre

Spectra were compared to the reference spectrum of bone via correlation Selleck 5-Fluoracil analysis. Our measurements

show a clear differentiation between the plasma spectra when cutting either a bone or a soft tissue. The spectral changes could be detected from one to the next spectrum within 200 ms. Continuous surveillance of plasma spectra allows us to differentiate whether bone or soft tissue is hit by the last laser pulse. With this information, it may be possible to stop the laser when cutting undesired soft tissue and to design an automatic control of the ablation process.”
“Purpose of review\n\nRandomized controlled trials have established that prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy improves survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, mortality

reduction is not uniform across the implanted population and recent data have highlighted the importance of nonsudden cardiac death (non-SCD) risk in predicting benefit from ICD therapy. This review explores the importance of non-SCD risk in patient selection for prophylactic ICD therapy, as well as the proposed approaches to identify potential ICD recipients at high risk of non-SCD.\n\nRecent findings\n\nData from randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that patients at high risk of non-SCD do not gain significant survival benefit from prophylactic ICD therapy irrespective of their risk of SCD. A variety of strategies to identify low LVEF patients at high risk of non-SCD have been proposed. These include the use of individual risk markers, such as advanced

Selleckchem LB-100 age and renal dysfunction, the presence of cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, and the use of more complex Tozasertib datasheet risk scores.\n\nSummary\n\nNon-SCD risk is an important issue in patient selection for prophylactic ICD therapy. However, the optimal strategy to identify patients at high non-SCD risk is unclear and further research is needed.”
“The incidence of acute nonvariceal massive gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is higher in hemodialysis (HD) patients than in healthy individuals, and this is often a life-threatening event. We evaluated the efficacy of intra-arterial treatment for GIB in HD patients. Between January 2006 and June 2012, eight HD patients with GIB were treated with superselective transarterial embolization. Of the eight cases, one was duodenal bleeding, two were jejunal bleeding, one was ileocecum bleeding, two were ascending colonic bleeding, and two were sigmoid colonic bleeding. After examining the site of bleeding by endoscopy or contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), embolizations with microcoils, gelatin sponges, or N-butyl cyanoacrylate were performed through interventional radiology (IVR). In all cases, blood transfusions were frequently administered. Six of the eight patients with GIB were successfully salvaged by transarterial embolization.

Clinical outcomes were similar amongst the groups There were no

Clinical outcomes were similar amongst the groups. There were no significant differences in VAS and perioperative complication rate between groups A and C. In patients 65 years and older, rhBMP-2 with allograft may lead to acceptable fusion rates and fusion times, good clinical outcomes and reduced perioperative complications. The combination of rhBMP-2 with allograft yields equivalent outcomes as autograft in elderly patients undergoing instrumented posterolateral lumbar fusion. Additionally, when compared to patients under 65 years of age undergoing posterolateral lumbar fusion, the use of rhBMP-2

was not sufficient to overcome all aspects of the age-related P5091 weakened osteoinductive capacity encountered in elderly patients.”
“ObjectiveInvestigate JQ1 chemical structure the effects of maternal gestational diabetes

mellitus (GDM) on height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) in offspring compared both to their siblings and to age-specific BMI reference values in Sweden. Their parents present BMI was also investigated.\n\nMethodsThe growth of 232 offspring to 110 women with at least one pregnancy with GDM, were studied up to 12yr of age. Height and weight of children were collected from Health Care Centres and compared to age-specific reference values in Sweden. Self-reported height and weight of the parents were collected at follow-up.\n\nResultsFor boys, weight was higher at birth and at 8-10yr of age, giving a higher BMI at 7-10yr of age. Girls had an accelerated height growth at all ages, combined with an increased weight of varying degree resulting in higher BMI at birth and at 4-12yr of age. A similar pattern was observed in siblings born after a normal pregnancy. Median BMI of mothers at follow-up was 25.4 (18.3-59.5 n=105) and 26.5 (18.6-38.1 n=90) for fathers.\n\nConclusionsChildren

born to mothers MK-2206 purchase with prior GDM have a higher risk of overweight and obesity later in life. This is most likely due to life style habits rather than intrauterine factors, as the same BMI pattern was found in siblings born after a normal pregnancy. However, the design of the study could not rule out the role of genetic factors. Priority should be given to early life style intervention in these families.”
“Although the rapid recovery of fishes after establishment of a marine reserve is well known, much less is known about the response of long-lived, sessile, benthic organisms to establishment of such reserves. Since antiquity, Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum) has been harvested intensively for use in jewelry, and its distribution is currently smaller than its historical size throughout the Mediterranean Sea.

Thus, luteolin functions by neuroprotection possibly through a re

Thus, luteolin functions by neuroprotection possibly through a rebalancing of pro-oxidant-antioxidant status. This agent points to possible interventions for preventing neurodegenerative diseases such as cerebral ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as for improving brain aging. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. This is largely due to the difficulty

of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. This is particularly difficult in the south-west Pacific countries of Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for

Selleck MK2206 the exophilic mosquitoes that are the primary malaria and filariasis vectors.\n\nMethods: Barrier screens of shade-cloth netting attached to bamboo poles were constructed between villages and likely areas where mosquitoes might seek blood meals or rest. Flying mosquitoes, obstructed by the barrier screens, would temporarily stop and could then be captured by aspiration at hourly intervals throughout the night.\n\nResults: In the three countries where this method was evaluated, blood-fed females of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles Nocodazole concentration bancroftii, Anopheles longirostris, CX-6258 purchase Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles tessellatus, Culex vishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia spp were collected while resting on the barrier screens. In addition, female Anopheles punctulatus and Armigeres spp as well as male An. farauti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes species were similarly captured.\n\nConclusions:

Building barrier screens as temporary resting sites in areas where mosquitoes were likely to fly was an extremely time-effective method for collecting an unbiased representative sample of engorged mosquitoes for determining the human blood index.”
“Soil organic carbon (SOC) content and radiocarbon concentration were measured in three particle-size fractions and charcoal fragments at four depths to bedrock in a sandy soil from SE Australia. SOC content declined with depth for all fractions. The enrichment factors of SOC showed that the finest particles are most important for SOC storage throughout the soil profile, and their importance for SOC storage increased with depth. In the topsoil, all particle-size fractions contained modern SOC. In contrast, charcoal from this depth gave radiocarbon ages of 85-165 years Before Present (BP). This difference was more pronounced at 30-60 cm, where the charcoal was dated at 2,540 years BP, over 12 times as old as the youngest fraction at that depth.

Methods and Results: Fifty-six women with secondary lymphedema an

Methods and Results: Fifty-six women with secondary lymphedema and 44 women without a history of breast cancer or lymphedema underwent measurement of their upper limbs with DXA, perometry, and bioimpedance spectroscopy. Whether the affected side was the dominant or nondominant arm influenced inter-limb tissue volumes differences (F=16.31 to 35.14; all p smaller than 0.001) and interacted with the severity of lymphedema (F=3.22 to 11.07; all p smaller than 0.05). In the control group, the dominant limb had more lean tissue but less fat than the nondominant limb. In the lymphedema group, increases in fat in

the affected arm were not related to generalized increases in whole body adiposity when the dominant arm was affected. Perometry-measured selleck products volumes and BIS ratios were moderately to highly correlated with inter-limb fat, volume, and total tissue differences found by DXA (r=0.39 to 0.86). Conclusions:

The direction and magnitude of limb composition changes in those with lymphedema are impacted by whether the affected side is the dominant or nondominant limb, as well as the severity of the condition. The stage of tissue composition change may impact on the diagnosis and monitoring as well as treatment of secondary lymphedema.”
“ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that occurs mostly in response to cellular stress and is catalysed by members of the diverse poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) polymerase (PARP/ARTD) family. The founding member of the family, PARP1, is best recognized for its function as a sensor of DNA strand lesions, but ADP-ribosylation has been implicated check details in transcriptional regulation, chromatin dynamics, telomere maintenance, apoptosis and neuronal signalling. Here we summarize a number

of exciting recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the structural and mechanistic aspects of how PARP1 recognizes DNA, how PARPs are regulated, how ADP-ribose modifications are set onto specific targets and how the cellular machinery recognizes this elusive post-translational modification.”
“To validated the 12-item Health Status Survey (SF-12) this website of Chinese version for evaluating health-related quality of life (HRQL) of Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) patients in Aba Tibetan autonomous area, China. 338 adult KBD patients in Rangtang County of Aba area were investigated with SF-12. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to test the original factor pattern. Internal consistency reliability was assessed by using Cronbach’s alpha. “Known groups” construct validity was assessed by comparing SF-12 component scores between respondents hypothesized to differ in health-related variables. Two latent factors were extracted explaining 69.4 % of the variance of the questionnaire. The factor loadings were mostly according with the principle concept, except for “vitality” (VT) and “social functioning” (SF) scales that loaded heavier on physical component. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.