The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.”
Brucellosis remains a major worldwide zoonosis. Caprine brucellosis is a significant problem for both public health and animal production. Brucella melitensis causes disease in goats, Ulixertinib solubility dmso sheep, humans, and occasionally cattle. Transmission is by ingestion or contact with infected materials, vaginal discharge, or milk. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the rate of B. melitensis seropositives and its probable shedding in lactating goats from flocks in Shahrekord district, Liproxstatin-1 in vitro Iran. Materials and Methods: In the current study, 1080 samples of milk, blood and vaginal swabs of 360 lactating goats (three samples from each animal) were randomly collected from 12 flocks in Shahrekord district. Serums from blood samples were examined by Rose Bengal plate (RBT) test and the titre of positives determined by tube agglutination test (TAT). Vaginal swab and milk (cream and sediment) samples were cultured on Brucella agar. Brucella spp. suspected pure cultures were incubated in the same conditions and then examined
by Modified Zeil-Nelson (MZN) staining, oxidase and catalase tests. Positive isolates were examined by PCR. Results: Out of 360 serum samples, 50 (13.9%) were positive by RBT, and six (1/66%) were positive by TAT. BIX 01294 supplier Culturing of milk and vaginal samples lead to isolation of 12 (3.33%) and 10 (2.77%) Brucella
spp. suspected colonies, respectively. The PCR examinations of these isolates showed that ten (2.77%) milk and 6 vaginal swab samples (1.66%) belonged to B. melitensis species. Eight goats (2.22%) had positive results in RBT, culture and PCR examinations, simultaneously. Conclusions: The regional distribution of caprine brucellosis and shedding of B. melitensis through vaginal secretions and milk secretions of lactating goats indicated that 50% and 83.33% of the goat flocks contained vaginal and milk shedders, respectively.”
“The role and potential efficacy of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in patients receiving cord blood transplantation (CBT) remain controversial. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of ATG on patient outcomes in 207 children with high-risk or advanced hematological malignancies at 8 child blood disease centers in China. The cumulative incidence of platelet recovery on day 100 was significantly lower in the ATG cohort compared with the non-ATG cohort (77.3% versus 89.8%) (P = .046). There was no significant difference in the incidence of grade II to IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) between the 2 groups (P = .76, P = .57, and P = .46, respectively). The incidence of CMV infection was significantly higher among the ATG group compared with that among the non-ATG group (P = .003).
This study aimed to develop a scoring system capable of stratifying patients with haematuria into high or low risk groups for having bladder cancer to help clinicians decide which patients need more urgent assessment. This cross-sectional study included all adult patients referred for haematuria and subsequently undergoing full urological evaluation in the years 2001 to 2011. Risk factors with strong PD0325901 ic50 association with bladder cancer in the study population were used to design the scoring system. Accuracy was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 325 patients with haematuria were included, out of which
70 gender, a history of cigarette smoking and the presence of gross haematuria. A scoring system using 4 clinical parameters as variables was created. The scores ranged between 6 to 14, and a score of 10 and above indicated high risk for having bladder cancer. It was found to have good Akt inhibitor drugs accuracy with an area under the ROC curve of in this study has the potential to help clinicians stratify patients who present with haematuria into high or low risk for having bladder cancer. This will enable high-risk patients to undergo urologic assessment earlier.”
“Theory predicts that senescence should inevitably evolve because selection
pressure declines with age. Yet, data show that senescence is not a universal phenomenon. How can these observations peacefully coexist? Evolution of any trait hinges on its impact on fitness. A complete mathematical description of change in fitness, the total fitness differential, involves selection pressure along with a perturbation function that describes how the vital rates, mortality and fecundity, are affected across ages. We propose that the perturbation function can be used to model trade-offs when vital rates are perturbed in different directions
and magnitude at different ages. We find that for every trade-off we can identify parameter values for which senescence does evolve and others for which it does not. We argue that this reconciles the apparent contradiction between data and theory. The total fitness differential is see more also instrumental in deriving mathematical relationships between alternative indicators of selection pressure. We show examples and highlight that any indicator combined with the right perturbation function can be used to parameterize a specific biological change. Biological considerations should motivate what perturbation functions are used. We interpret the relevance of Hamilton’s finding that selection pressure declines for the evolution of senescence: declining selection pressure is a necessary but not a sufficient condition. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Figitumumab (CP-751,871) is a fully human immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody highly potent and specific against the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.
“This study was carried out to investigate whether dietary vitamin E and ferulic acid (FA) can exert possible interactions on preventions of hypercholesterolemia and atherogenic lesion formation in C57BL/65 apolipoprotein E-deficient (apo E(-/-)) mice. Four-week-old male apo E(-/-) mice were randomly divided into three groups and given one of three types of Western diets with various amounts of vitamin E (0.02%, 0%, or 0.2%) for 15 weeks. FA was added to vitamin E-free Western diet and check details vitamin E-rich Western diet at the 0.02% level. The plasma total cholesterol concentration was significantly lowered when
FA was added to the vitamin E-free and vitamin E-rich Western diet as compared to the normal
vitamin E Western diet (0.02% vitamin E), and this was accompanied with a decreased hepatic acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase activity. The hepatic and erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels were significantly lowered when FA was added to the vitamin E-rich Western diet, which was attributable to increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and paraoxonase. Accordingly, vitamin E and/or FA are beneficial for prevention of hypercholesterolemia and atherogenesis in apo E(-/-) S3I-201 mice. In particular, dietary FA exhibited an anti-atherosclerotic property, and this effect was synergistically enhanced with the vitamin E supplement.”
“The microwave absorption properties of single-wall carbon
nanotubes (SWNCTs) and barium ferrite nanocrystalline (SWCNT/BaFe(12)O(19)) composites with different doping ratios are investigated in the frequency region of 2-18 GHz. The transmission line theory is used to calculate the reflection loss properties, and microwave absorptive mechanism of the SWCNT/BaFe(12)O(19) composites is discussed. The experiment results reveal that the microwave absorption properties of composite are very sensitive to the volume percentage of SWCNTs. Owing GANT61 to the multiple absorptive mechanisms, the microwave absorption properties of composite are evidently improved. When SWCNTs are doped with 6 vol% of the sample volume, the maximum reflection loss of the SWCNT/BaFe(12)O(19) composite with a 3 mm thickness reaches 30.79 dB at 10.5 GHz, and the range of resonance absorption peak below -10 dB is about 6 GHz. (C) 2010 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“Using the uniaxial compaction method, ceramic disk type microfiltration membranes were fabricated using mixtures of clays to yield membranes M1, M2, and M3. These were obtained with distinct compositions of raw materials at a sintering temperature of 900 degrees C. Membrane characterization was conducted using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM).
Patients received 8 weekly infusions of nimotuzumab. The first nimotuzumab infusion was administered 1 week before starting radiation, whereas the remaining doses were administered concomitantly with irradiation. Paired biopsies Selleck PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor were taken from skin and primary tumors, before (pretherapy) and 1 week (on single-agent therapy) after first infusion. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to assay the effects of nimotuzumab on total and phosphorylated
EGFR, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2), p-AKT, and proliferation (Ki-67).\n\nResults: Nimotuzumab was well tolerated and there was no evidence of skin rash. Objective response was achieved in U0126 purchase 9 of 10 patients. The pharmacodynamic assays showed inhibition of p-EGFR in both skin and tumor (P = 0.042 in skin and P = 0.034 in tumor). No significant changes in p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, or Ki-67 were detected in skin. In addition, lymphocytic infiltrates, folliculitis, or perifolliculitis were not observed. In tumor samples, there was an upregulation of p-AKT (P = 0.043), a reduction
in proliferation index (P = 0.012), and a nonsignificant trend toward a decrease of p-ERK1/2 (P = 0.091).\n\nConclusions: The pharmacodynamic data confirmed the ability of nimotuzumab to decrease EGFR phosphorylation. Downstream effects were observed in tumor cells but not in skin, a finding that may help to explain the lack of skin rash in patients treated with nimotuzumab. Clin Cancer Res; 16(8); 2474-82. (C) 2010 AACR.”
“Our NVP-BSK805 manufacturer previous study showed that hypermethylation of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase
2 contributes to homocysteine-induced apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is a green tea-derived phenol which has been proved beneficial on atherosclerosis. It was demonstrated that epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits DNA methyltransferase activity and reactivates methylation-silenced genes in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to address whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate could induce DNA demethylation of the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 gene, contributing to prevent endothelial cells from apoptosis induced by homocysteine. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ATCC, CRL-2480) were treated with homocysteine (1mM) for 48 hours with or without epigallocatechin-3-gallate (20 mu M) or 5Aza (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5 mu M). Apoptosis rate of human umbilical vein endothelial cells was assayed by flow cytometry with an annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection kit. The mRNA and protein expression level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 and DNA methyltransferase 1 were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. DNA methylation level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 was assayed by methylation specific PCR.
Although previous work suggests that music reduces preoperative stress and may be useful during sedation, our results do not support the use of music during surgery.”
“To assess developmental characteristics of nociceptive Selleckchem HM781-36B responses induced by bee venom (BV) injection in neonatal rats, we exposed pups to intra-plantar injection of various BV concentrations given
at different time points between postnatal day 1 and day 28 (P1-P28). Persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN) as well as thermal and mechanical nociceptive response was compared before and after a BV injection. There were distinct age-related changes in the baseline paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) when examined on P1, P4, P7, P14, P21, and P28. The lowest and highest baseline PWTL was shown on P1 and P7, respectively, and PWTL was unchanged from P7 to P28. In contrast, the baseline PWMT remained low before P21 but increased dramatically afterward. Neonatal rats receiving intra-plantar BV injection showed a time-dependent change in nociceptive responses, including (1) a dose-related increase in PSN from P1 to P28; (2) a non-specific decrease (indistinguishable between saline and BV injection) in PWTL and PWMT up to P14 and P21, respectively; and (3) a specific decrease (in response to BV injection only) in PWTL and
PWMT after P14 and P21, respectively. These findings indicate that characteristic changes in the baseline and BV-induced nociceptive response are both time-dependent and modality-specific in neonatal
rats. The data reveal NU7441 manufacturer a critical postnatal period during which nociceptive stimulation could have a significant influence on nociceptive behavior in adult rats and suggest that preclinical models of neonatal nociception should be evaluated according to different postnatal time points. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights VS-6063 concentration reserved.”
“Studies suggest that like selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) reuptake inhibitors, antagonists at neurokinin-1 receptors (NK(1)Rs) may have antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. NK(1)Rs are present in 5-HT innervated forebrain regions which may provide a common point of interaction between these two transmitter systems. This study aimed to investigate for cellular co-localization between NK(1)Rs and 5-HT receptor subtypes in mood-related brain regions in the rat forebrain. With experiments using fluorescence immunocytochemistry, double-labelling methods demonstrated a high degree of co-localization between NK(1)Rs and 5-HT1A receptors in most regions examined. Co-localization was highest in the medial septum (88% NK1R expressing cells were 5-HT1A receptor-positive) and hippocampal regions (e.g. dentate gyrus, 65%), followed by the lateral/basolateral amygdala (35%) and medial prefrontal cortex (31%).
\n\nDectin-1, and to a lesser extent Dectin-2, contributed to arthritis. TLR2, MyD88 and
CR3 played non-essential roles. Observations based on injection of curdlan, laminarin or mannan supported the dominant role of the Dectin-1 pathway in the joint. We demonstrated differential roles for NOD1 and NOD2 and identified NOD2 as a novel and essential mediator of zymosan-induced arthritis.\n\nTogether, Dectin-1 and NOD2 are critical, sentinel receptors in the arthritogenic effects of zymosan. Our data identify a novel role for NOD2 during inflammatory responses within joints.”
“Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesized that sitagliptin, a DPP4-inhibitor, could improve endothelial dysfunction in DM patients with coronary artery selleck products disease (CAD).\n\nMethods and Results: The 40 patients with CAD and uncontrolled DM, aged 68.7+/-9.4 years (mean standard deviation) (50% males, hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)] 7.4+/-1.0%) were assigned to either additional treatment with sitagliptin (50 mg/day, n=20) or aggressive conventional treatment (control, n=20) for 6 months. Endothelial function was assessed by the reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry index (RHI). The clinical characteristics at baseline
were not different between the groups. After treatment, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and lipid profiles GW786034 concentration were not different between the groups. HbA(1c) levels significantly improved similarly in both groups. The percent change in RHI was greater in the sitagliptin group than in the control group (62.4+/-59.2% vs. 15.9+/-22.0%, P<0.01). Furthermore,
treatment with sitagliptin resulted in a significant decrease in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, but no such change was noted in the control Vactosertib group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant negative relation between changes in RHI and hsCRP, but not between RHI and HbA(1c).\n\nConclusions: Sitagliptin significantly improved endothelial function and inflammatory state in patients with CAD and uncontrolled DM, beyond its hypoglycemic action. These findings suggest that sitagliptin has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system in DM patients. (Circ J 2013; 77: 1337-1344)”
“Loring SH, O’Donnell CR, Behazin N, Malhotra A, Sarge T, Ritz R, Novack V, Talmor D. Esophageal pressures in acute lung injury: do they represent artifact or useful information about transpulmonary pressure, chest wall mechanics, and lung stress? J Appl Physiol 108: 515-522, 2010. First published December 17, 2009; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00835.2009.-Acute lung injury can be worsened by inappropriate mechanical ventilation, and numerous experimental studies suggest that ventilator-induced lung injury is increased by excessive lung inflation at end inspiration or inadequate lung inflation at end expiration.
These isolates along with other characterized ones were used for the evaluation of the generic MK-0518 PCR’s detection range. The developed assay efficiently amplified a 593 bp RdRp fragment from 46 isolates of 10 different Polerovirus species. Phylogenetic analysis using the generic PCR’s amplicon sequence showed that although it cannot accurately infer evolutionary relationships within
the genus it can differentiate poleroviruses at the species level. Overall, the described generic assay could be applied for the reliable detection of Polerovirus infections and, in combination with the specific PCRs, for the identification of new and uncharacterized species in the genus. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Biodiversity is increasingly declining as a result of direct human impact
and structural alteration of ecosystems resulting from changes in human life styles. Itasenpara bittering (Acheilognathus longipinnis), which has been maintained in floodplain and paddy fields, is a threatened cyprinid fish endemic to central Japan. To aid in the preservation of this species, information on genetic diversity and demographic variables in wild and captive populations was obtained using microsatellite DNA analysis. Temporal changes in genetic diversity and effective population Bindarit price size (N (e)) tended to be relatively SC79 clinical trial stable in the wild Moo River population, although lower values were detected in the wild Busshouji River population, suggesting an extremely
high risk of extinction in the latter. Captive populations derived from the Busshouji River population demonstrated significant genetic divergence even among intrapopulational cohorts, suggesting the influence of genetic drift caused by geographic isolation and small population size. Active maintenance of genetic diversity in captive population is a necessary part of conservation programs, as are continuous addition of wild individuals and replacement of individuals among captive populations. In addition, increasing or maintaining suitable floodplain areas and artificial habitats such as paddy fields might contribute to the conservation of genetic diversity in the Itasenpara bittering.”
“There is some debate regarding the differing levels of plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and serum folate between healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
(C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“This paper reports the construction
of a novel multi-sensitive chemically crosslinked injectable hydrogel with strong mechanical strength by modifying Pluronic F127 responsive against temperature, pH and redox potential. Crosslinked polymer between benzaldehyde grafted Pluronic (P-A) and amine end capped Pluronic having disulfide linkage (P-B) have been synthesized and characterized with 1 H NMR spectroscopy and GPC. The hydrogel under physiological conditions significantly altered sol-gel transition behaviors with much lower critical gelation concentrations and temperatures, compared to Pluronic hydrogels. The rheological characterization demonstrated that the moduli of the hydrogels were able to be tuned depending on molecular weight as well as pH, redox and temperature click here conditions.”
“A new series of peptidomimetic pseudo-prolyl-homophenylalanylketones were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases Selleckchem SNX-5422 falcipain-2 (FP-2) and falcipain-3 (FP-3). In addition, the parasite killing activity of these compounds in human blood-cultured P. falciparum was examined. Of twenty-two (22) compounds synthesized, one peptidomimetic comprising a homophenylalanine-based a-hydroxyketone linked Cbz-protected
hydroxyproline (39) showed the most potency (IC50 80 nM against FP-2 and 60 nM against FP-3). this website In silico analysis of these peptidomimetic analogs offered important protein-ligand structural insights including the role, by WaterMap, of water molecules in the active sites of these protease isoforms. The pseudo-dipeptide 39 and related compounds may serve as a promising direction forward in the design of competitive inhibitors of falcipains for the effective treatment of malaria. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Anionic polymerizations of acrylates possessing 1-pyrenyl (Py1), 1-naphthyl (Np1), 2-naphthyl (Np2), and 2-fluorenyl (Fl2) groups
as alpha-substituents were investigated as well as the properties of the obtained polymers. Py1 and Np1 did not undergo polymerization, whereas Np2 and Fl2, annulated alpha-phenylacrylates at 3,4-position of the phenyl group, afforded homo-oligomers and alternating copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA). The oligomer of Fl2 [oligo(Fl2)] exhibited strong excimer emission in diluted solution. In contrast, dominant monomer emission was observed for the alternating copolymer with MMA [ poly(Fl2-co-MMA)]. In the alternating copolymer, MMA units could function as spacers preventing the association of pendant fluorene moieties to suppress the excimer formation. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“ProblemIn twin pregnancies, factors that influence total umbilical cord IgG concentration and IgG transfer ratio are not well known.
The sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 10 RNA copies per reaction for both HA and NA genes. No cross-reactivity was observed with other influenza virus subtypes or respiratory tract viruses. One hundred and forty-six clinical
and environmental specimens were tested and compared with reference methods and were found to be consistent. The assay is suitable for large-scale screening due to short turnaround times and high specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“High throughput means to detect and quantify low-frequency mutations (<10-2) in the DNA-coding sequences of human tissues and pathological lesions are required to discover the kinds, numbers, and rates Pexidartinib chemical structure of genetic mutations that (i) confer inherited risk for disease or (ii) arise in somatic tissues as events required for clonal diseases selleck kinase inhibitor such as cancers and atherosclerotic plaque.While throughput of linear DNAsequencing methods has increased dramatically, such methods are limited by high error rates (>10-3) rendering them unsuitable for the detection of low-frequency risk-conferring mutations among the many neutral mutations carried in the general population or formed in tissue growth and development. In contrast, constant denaturing capillary electrophoresis (CDCE), coupled with high-fidelity
PCR, achieved a point mutation detection limit of <10-5 in exon-sized sequences from human tissue or pooled blood samples. However, increasing CDCEthroughput proved difficult due to the need for precise temperature control and the time-consuming optimization steps for each DNAsequence probed. Both of these problems have been solved by the method of cycling temperature capillary electrophoresis (CTCE). The data presented here provide a deeper see more understanding of the separation principles involved in CTCEand address several elements of a previously presented two-state transport
“BACKGROUND: Pediatric heart transplant recipients exhibit cognitive delays, as evident in assessments of their general intelligence. Less is known about their specific neurocognitive impairments.\n\nMETHODS: All 19 children in Finland aged 6 to 16 years who had undergone heart transplantation (HTx) participated. Of these, 12 (63%) had cardiomyopathy (CM) and 7 (37%) had congenital heart disease (CHD). They were assessed on average 5.5 (SD, 3.6) years post-operatively at a mean age of 12.0 (SD, 3.1) years. A standardized test of intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC]-III), a neuropsychological test battery (NEPSY-II), and a parental developmental questionnaire (FTF) were administered. The neuropsychological test profile of the HTx group was compared with that of a matched control group.
(C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3670968]“
“BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Individuals with
high spinal cord injury (SCI) are prone to significant fluctuation in blood pressure https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2157299.html with episodes of very high and low blood pressure during autonomic dysreflexia (AD) and orthostatic hypotension. respectively. We do not know how such blood pressure lability affects the vasculature.\n\nPURPOSE: We used a well-characterized animal model of AD to determine whether increasing the frequency of AD during recovery from SCI would exacerbate injury-induced dysfunction in resistance vessels.\n\nSTUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Experimental animal study. International Collaboration On Repair Discoveries (ICORD), University of British Columbia, Canada.\n\nMETHODS: Complete transection of the T3 spinal cord was performed in male Wistar rats. For 14 days after injury, AD was induced via colorectal distension (CRD; 30 minutes per day) in the experimental group (SCI-CRD).
One month after SCI, baseline cardiovascular parameters and severity of CRD-induced AD were assessed in SCI-CRD animals and SCI-only controls. Mesenteric arteries were harvested for in vitro myography to characterize vasoactive responses to phenylephrine (PE) and acetylcholine (ACh).\n\nRESULTS: Mesenteric arteries from SCI-CRD Dehydrogenase inhibitor animals exhibited larger maximal responses to PE than arteries from SCI-only controls. Hyperresponsiveness to PE was not a product of endothelial dysfunction because mesenteric arteries from both groups had similar vasodilator Sonidegib mouse responses to ACh. Both SCI-only controls and SCI-CRD animals exhibited CRD-evoked AD 1 month after SCI; however, CRD-induced hypertension was less pronounced in animals that were previously exposed to CRD.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Injury-induced changes within the vasculature may contribute to the development of AD after SCI. Here, we provide evidence that AD itself has significant and long-lasting effects on vascular function. This finding has implications for the medical management of AD and provides an impetus for maintaining stable blood pressure. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the results of treatment of paediatric femoral and/or tibial diaphyseal fractures with titanium elastic nails (TENs).\n\nSixty six patients with 48 femoral and 25 tibial fractures were followed-up for 15 to 24 months. The outcome rating system proposed by Flynn et al was used to evaluate the final results.\n\nMost patients (56.1%) were operated between 2 to 4 days after injury; a traction table was used in 54.8% of cases. The average operative time was 28 minutes, and the average hospital stay was 5.7 days. Postoperative immobilisation was used in 30% of cases, mostly with femoral fractures. The fractures united in an average time period of 85 days; 89% had united within 3 months. The nails were removed in 87.8% of cases after an average of 5.9 months.