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. Nutlin-3a J Bacteriol 1999, 181:2492–2500.PubMed 59. Pohl K, Francois P, Stenz L, Schlink F, Geiger T, Herbert S: CodY in Staphylococcus aureus : a regulatory link between metabolism and virulence gene expression. J Bacteriol 2009, 191:2953–2963.PubMedCrossRef 60. Soulat D, Grangeasse C, Vaganay E, Cozzone AJ, Duclos B: UDP-acetyl-mannosamine dehydrogenase is an endogenous protein substrate of Staphylococcus aureus protein-tyrosine kinase activity. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2007, 13:45–54.PubMedCrossRef 61. Novick RP: Genetic systems in staphylococci. Methods Enzymol 1991, 204:587–636.PubMedCrossRef 62. Seaman P, Day M, Russell AD, Ochs D: Susceptibility of capsular Staphylococcus aureus strains to some antibiotics, triclosan Wortmannin concentration and cationic biocides. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004, 54:696–698.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions AJ designed the study, carried out the microarray and qRT-PCR experiments, performed susceptibility
experiments and drafted the manuscript. CS constructed mutants in S. aureus SA137/93G, SA1450/94 and S. aureus HG001 and performed susceptibility experiments. WS, CW and CG carried out the immunofluorescence visualisation of the capsule polysaccharides, integrated the plasmid pMUTIN4 into the capsule promoter of S. aureus Newman and contributed to qRT-PCR experiments. JL gave critical advice for the design of the study, provided capsular antibody, purified CP5, and the Reynolds Ergoloid CP+/CP- strain pair. MT participated in
mutant construction. GB conceived the study, participated in its design and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Pyridine and its derivatives are mainly produced on an industrial scale from coal tar. These compounds are major industrial raw materials and intermediates used for organic solvents and the production of agrichemicals, medicines, and active surfactants . Pyridines are soluble in polar and LY333531 cost nonpolar solvents, and most are toxic . Pyridine and its derivatives are also environmental pollutants, and their biodegradation has been studied in detail . The biodegradability of pyridine derivatives follows the order pyridinecarboxylic acids > pyridine = monohydroxypyridines > methylpyridines > aminopyridines = chloropyridines . Generally, pyridines are degraded via pyridine-ring reduction and fission steps  or via pyridine-ring hydroxylation and fission steps [6–8]. Nocardia sp. strain Z1 directly cleaves the pyridine ring between N and position C-2 and further metabolizes the product via glutaric dialdehyde, and Bacillus sp. strain 4 cleaves the ring between positions C-2 and C-3 and the product it further via succinate semialdehyde .