clavuligerus or N. lactamdurans [16, 20, 21, 31–34, 42, 43]. Based on results of cultivations using only lysine as additive (Figure 2), concentrations of amino acid ranging from 0 to 7.4 g l-1 were selected in order to minimize its effect on biomass production.

With respect to find more alpha-aminoadipic acid, concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.64 g l-1 were selected due to superior cephamycin C volumetric production results obtained in this range (Figure 3). As to lysine, the highest volumetric production of cephamycin C was observed at 48 hours, which varied little at 72 hours (Figure 2B). The highest volumetric production values for the basal medium with 1,3-diaminopropane or alpha-aminoadipic acid were observed at 72 hours. With respect to cadaverine and putrescine, the highest volumetric production values observed at 48 and 72 hours were almost eFT508 mw the same. https://www.selleckchem.com/products/CAL-101.html For this reason, cultivation time was standardized to 72 hours for the experimental designs and bioreactor processes. The chosen experimental design (CCF) and the concentration range employed for the compounds under investigation (independent variables), together with the use of response surface methodology for statistical treatment of the data obtained at 72 h cultivation, allowed for the adjustment of quadratic models to predict cephamycin C production at 90% confidence level. The generated response surfaces

and their corresponding second-order polynomials are shown in Figure 4.

Table 3 shows the analyses PAK5 of variance (ANOVA) of the fitted models, including the F-test to verify the overall significance of each model, its associated probabilities p(F), and determination coefficient R2. Figure 4 Fitted response surfaces (at 90% confidence level) for cephamycin C concentration (CephC). Batch cultivation (72-hour) in shaken-flasks in media containing: (A) lysine (Lys) and alpha-aminoadipic acid (AAA), (B) lysine (Lys) and 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3D), (C) lysine (Lys) and cadaverine (Cad), and (D) lysine (Lys) and putrescine (Put). Table 3 Analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the quadratic models regressions at 90% confidence level Lysine and alpha-aminoadipic acid (R2 = 0.9543*) Lysine and 1,3-diaminopropane (R2 = 0.9544*) Source SS DF MS F p SS DF MS F p Model 13,068.14 5 2,613.63 25.06** 6.0 x 10-4 15,993.37 5 3198.67 25.10** 6.0 x 10-4 Residual 625.82 6 104.30 764.58 6 127.43 Lack of fit 509.35 3 169.78 4.37 0.128 441.58 3 147.19 1.37 0.402 Pure error 116.47 3 38.82 323.00 3 107.67 Total 13,693.96 11 16,757.95 11 Lysine and cadaverine (R 2 = 0.9793*) Lysine and putrescine (R 2 = 0.9006*) Source SS DF MS F p SS DF MS F p Model 3,080.16 5 616.03 56.77** <10-4 3,650.07 5 730.01 10.87** 5.7 x 10-3 Residual 65.10 6 10.85 402.82 6 67.14 Lack of fit 32.35 3 10.78 0.99 0.503 318.82 3 106.27 3.79 0.151 Pure error 32.75 3 10.92 84.00 3 28.