Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“This study examines the response of Symbiodinium sp. endosymbionts from the coral Stylophora pistillata to moderate levels of thermal “bleaching” stress, with and without trace metal limitation. Using quantitative high throughput proteomics, we identified 8098 MS/MS events relating to individual BIBF 1120 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor peptides from the endosymbiont-enriched fraction, including 109 peptides meeting stringent criteria for quantification, of which only 26 showed significant change in our experimental
treatments; 12 of 26 increased expression in response to thermal stress with little difference affected by iron limitation. Surprisingly, there were no significant increases in antioxidant or heat stress proteins; those induced to higher expression were generally involved in protein biosynthesis. An outstanding exception was a massive 114-fold increase of a viral replication protein indicating that thermal stress may substantially increase viral load and thereby contribute to the etiology of coral bleaching and disease. In the absence of a sequenced genome for Symbiodinium or other photosymbiotic dinoflagellate, this proteome reveals a plethora of proteins potentially involved in microbial-host interactions. This includes photosystem proteins, DNA repair enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, metabolic redox enzymes, heat
shock proteins, globin hemoproteins, proteins of nitrogen metabolism, and a wide range of viral proteins associated Blebbistatin in vitro with these endosymbiont-enriched
samples. Also present were 21 unusual peptide/protein toxins thought to originate from either microbial consorts or from contamination by coral nematocysts. Of particular interest are the proteins of apoptosis, vesicular transport, and endo/exocytosis, which are discussed in context of the cellular processes of coral bleaching. Notably, the protein complement provides evidence that, rather than being expelled by the host, stressed endosymbionts may mediate their BMS-754807 inhibitor own departure. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 11: 10.1074/mcp.M111.015487, 1-19, 2012.”
“Background: The ABCD(2) score predicts stroke risk within a few days of transient ischaemic attack (TIA). It is not clear whether the predictive value of the ABCD(2) score can be generalised to UK TIA services, where delayed presentation of TIA and minor stroke are common. We investigated prognosis, and the use of the ABCD(2) score, in patients attending TIA services in the North West of England with a diagnosis of TIA or minor stroke.\n\nMethods: 711 patients with TIA or minor stroke were prospectively recruited from five centres (median duration from index event to recruitment 15 days). The primary outcome was the composite of incident TIA, stroke, acute coronary syndrome or cardiovascular death at the 3 month follow-up. Prognostic factors were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression.\n\nResults: The primary outcome occurred in 126 (18%) patients. Overall, there were 30 incident strokes.