“Dopamine agonists disrupt prepulse inhibition (PPI) of st

“Dopamine agonists disrupt prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle in male rodents. In humans, this is observed only in some studies. We reported that PPI was disrupted by d-amphetamine in men, but only among those with high basal PPI

levels. Here, amphetamine effects on PPI were tested in normal women and female rats.

Acoustic startle and PPI were tested in normal women after placebo or 20 mg amphetamine, in a double-blind, crossover design, and in female rats after vehicle or 4.5 mg/kg amphetamine. Rats were from Sprague-Dawley check details (SD) and Long Evans (LE) strains that differ significantly in gene expression in PPI-regulatory circuitry, including levels of nucleus accumbens PD173074 (NAC) catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) mRNA.

Amphetamine was bioactive in humans based on quantitative autonomic and self-rating measures, but did not significantly change startle magnitude or PPI across all subjects. Amphetamine’s effects on PPI in women correlated significantly (p < 0.0008) with placebo PPI levels (reducing PPI only in women

whose basal PPI levels exceeded the sample median) and with measures of novelty and sensation seeking. Amphetamine decreased PPI in SD rats that have relatively low NAC COMT gene expression and increased PPI in LE rats that have relatively high NAC COMT gene expression.

The dopaminergic regulation of PPI in humans is related to basal levels of sensorimotor gating and to specific personality traits in normal men and women. In rats, the effects of amphetamine on PPI differ significantly in strains with low vs. high NAC COMT expression.”
“In this Opinion we discuss the development of artificial spores and their maturation

as an independent field of research. The robust cell-in-shell structures have displayed unprecedented characteristics, which include the retardation of cell division and extensive cytoprotective capabilities that encompass exposure to osmotic pressure, shear force, heat, UV radiation, and lytic enzymes. Additionally, the nanothin shells act as highly versatile scaffolds for chemical functionalization to equip cells for implementation in tissue engineering, biosensors, cell therapy, or other biotechnological applications. Selleck AZD8186 We also explore the future direction of this emerging field and dictate that the next phase of research should focus on attaining more intricate engineering to achieve stimulus-responsive shell-degradation, multilayer casings with orthogonal functions, and the encapsulation of multiple cells for multicellular artificial spores.”
“Background/Aims: Fructose causes a sodium-sensitive hypertension and acutely reduces the urinary Na+ excretion, suggesting that it may regulate the activity of renal tubular sodium transporters. NHE3 is highly expressed in proximal tubule (PT), along with proteins that mediate fructose transport and metabolism.

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