In 2008-2009, 506 reports describing 5 to 17 year olds were recei

In 2008-2009, 506 reports describing 5 to 17 year olds were received. The serious reports of tests performed after TIV were approximately 10% of all reports from 2001-2006, Napabucasin mw and 6% of the reports in the 2008-2009 season. Data mining showed an increased proportion of medication errors and Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS). The findings of GBS could

not be interpreted as causally related to vaccination. Among 201 reports of medication error, 94% had no AE reported other than the medication error itself.

Conclusion: In this analysis, we found no unexpected AEs. Our review of medication error and GBS reports suggests that ongoing monitoring in these areas is appropriate.”
“Study Design. Retrospective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based study.

Objective. Our goal was to develop Wiltse’s paraspinal surgical approach by determining the precise anatomic locations of the intermuscular cleavage planes formed by the multifidus and longissimus muscles. The primary objective was to measure the distances between the midline and the intermuscular planes, bilaterally, on MRI scans at each of the five disc levels between L1 and S1. Secondary

objectives included identifying the existence of any correlations between patient demographics and the measured outcomes.

Summary of Background Data. In 1968, Wiltse described an approach to the spine using the natural cleavage plane of the multifidus and longissimus muscles as an entry to the posterior spinal elements. The small direct incisions lessened bleeding, tissue violation, and muscle retraction, which popularized Wiltse’s approach among surgeons. A detailed description

of the locations of the intermuscular cleavage planes at each lumbar disc level, however, is not available.

Methods. MRI scans of 200 patients taken SN-38 datasheet during routine care (2007-2009) were retrospectively reviewed to gather measurements of the distances from the intermuscular cleavage planes to the midline, bilaterally, at each disc level from L1 to S1. Age, sex, and BMI (body mass index) were obtained to determine correlations.

Results. Mean measurements significantly differed between all disc levels. At L5-S1, the mean distance was 37.8 mm; at L4-L5, 28.4 mm; at L3-L4, 16.2 mm; at L2-L3, 10.4 mm; and at L1-L2, 7.9 mm. The mean female distances were significantly greater than males (2 mm) on both sides of L5-S1 only. No correlation was discovered between BMI, age, height (N = 50), or weight (N = 50) with respect to measured distances.

Conclusion. In the absence of any significant clinical correlation between patient demographics and the entry site in Wiltse’s approach, the spine surgeon may use distances described in this paper to apply to a broad base of spine patients regardless of BMI, sex, or age.

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