(J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012; 144:1307-14)”
“Reflux venous signal on the brain and neck time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) is thought to be related AZD7762 supplier to a compressed left brachiocephalic vein. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of venous reflux flow in internal jugular vein (IJV),
sigmoid sinus/transverse sinus (SS/TS), and inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) on the brain and neck TOF MRA and its pattern.
From the radiology database, 3,475 patients (1,526 men, 1,949 women, age range 19-94, median age 62 years) with brain and neck standard 3D TOF MRA at 3 T and 1.5 T were identified. Rotational maximal intensity projection images of 3D TOF MRA were assessed for the presence of reflux flow in IJV, IPS, and SS/TS.
Fifty-five patients (1.6 %) had reflux flow, all in the left side. It was more prevalent in females (n = 43/1,949, 2.2 %) than in males (n = 12/1,526, 0.8 %) (p = 0.001). The mean age of patients with reflux flow (66 years old) was older than those (60 years old) without reflux flow
(p = 0.001). Three patients Rigosertib in vivo had arteriovenous shunt in the left arm for hemodialysis. Of the remaining 52 patients, reflux was seen on IJV in 35 patients (67.3 %). There were more patients with reflux flow seen on SS/TS (n = 34) than on IPS (n = 25).
Venous reflux flow on TOF MRA is infrequently observed, and reflux pattern is variable. Because it is exclusively located in the left side, the reflux signal on TOF MRA could be an alarm for an undesirable candidate for a contrast injection on the
left side for contrast-enhanced imaging study.”
“The level of F-2-isoprostanes (F-2-IsoP) in blood or urine is widely regarded as the reference marker for the assessment of oxidative stress. As a result, nowadays, F-2-IsoP is the most frequently measured oxidative stress marker. Nevertheless, determining F-2-IsoP is a challenging task and the measurement is neither free of mishaps nor straightforward. This review presents for the first time the effect of acute and chronic exercise on F-2-IsoP levels in plasma, urine and skeletal muscle, placing emphasis on the origin, the methodological caveats and the interpretation either of F-2-IsoP alterations. From data analysis, the following effects of exercise have emerged: (i) acute exercise dearly increases F-2-IsoP levels in plasma and this effect is generally short-lived. (ii) acute exercise and increased contractile activity markedly increase F-2-IsoP levels in skeletal muscle, (iii) chronic exercise exhibits trend for decreased F-2-IsoP levels in urine but further research is needed. Theoretically, it seems that significant amounts of F-2-IsoP can be produced not only from phospholipids but from neutral lipids as well.