Rarely, severe infections have been reported [70] Confusion abou

Rarely, severe infections have been reported [70]. Confusion about whether an envenomated extremity is inflamed or infected may lead to unnecessary medical care, including intravenous antibiotics and prolonged hospitalization [71]. Decisions about debridement and tissue grafting may also be complex. Consultation with an expert who has experience managing envenomated wounds may improve these decisions. Treatments to avoid in pit viper snakebite (box 15) The panel recommends against several therapies that are commonly utilized to treat crotaline envenomation, but which are ineffective, unnecessary, or harmful.

Wound incision and suction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical does not remove meaningful amounts of venom and can worsen local Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tissue injury [72,73]. Although little evidence exists to condemn the topical application of ice, this measure appears to be ineffective [74]. More aggressive forms of cryotherapy, such as ice water immersion, have been associated with severe iatrogenic tissue injury [75]. Although this issue has not been subjected to study, panel members recommended avoiding the use of non-steroidal

anti-inflammatory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical drugs (NSAIDs) because of the theoretical harm associated with the platelet dysfunction caused by NSAIDs in a potentially thrombocytopenic patient. Prophylactic antibiotics, prophylactic fasciotomy, and the routine use of blood products should be avoided for the reasons discussed above. Application of electrical current from a spark plug or hand-held “stun gun” has been recommended for therapy based on anecdotal experience from

a missionary physician in Ecuador[76]. Subsequent animal research and human Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical experience have shown this practice to be ineffective and associated with significant tissue injury [77-81]. There is a paucity of data about the role of corticosteroids in crotaline snakebite. Based on unpublished experience and controlled trial data from the United States showing that corticosteroids do not improve Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical outcome in old world viper (family Viperidae, subfamily Viperidae) envenomation, administration of corticosteroids is reserved for treatment of hypersensitivity phenomena [82,83]. Although data from envenomations by snakes native to the United States Cediranib (AZD2171) are lacking, arterial tourniquet application is ineffective and sometimes associated with apparent harm when used to treat South selleck chemicals llc American crotaline snakes [84]. Although pressure immobilization has a confirmed role in the management of highly neurotoxic elapid snake envenomations, its role in crotaline envenomation is unclear. In porcine models of severe western diamondback rattlesnake envenomation, pressure immobilization prolonged survival, with varying effects on local tissue injury [85,86].

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