The new STs were SLVs of known STs and resulted from single nucleotide changes. STs were identical when multiple isolates from a single outbreak were analysed. In several cases, STs were also identical between isolates from epidemiologically unrelated animal deaths, outbreaks, countries or host species. For example, ST261 was associated with three epidemiologically unrelated fish death in Australia; ST260 was found
in tilapia from Honduras, Colombia and Costa Rica; and ST7 was found in a bullfrog and tilapia from Thailand and in mullet from Pevonedistat Kuwait (Figure 1). The ST7 isolates from Thailand originated from 5 provinces (Nakhon Sawan Selleckchem RG-7388 Province – frog farm; Kanchanaburi Province – tilapia farm; Nakhon Pathom Province – 2 tilapia farms; and Saraburi Province – tilapia farm) and were epidemiologically unrelated. The two ST500 isolates from Thailand originated from tilapia farms in Mukdahan Province and Phetchaburi Province, respectively. E-burst analysis (Figure 2) showed that all piscine isolates from Asia and the Middle-East and the frog
isolate from Asia (ST7 and its SLV ST500; ST283 and its SLV ST491) belonged to 2 related subgroups, both of which are part of eBURST group 1. The bottlenose dolphin isolate from the UK (ST399) also belonged to eBURST group 1. This large eBURST group includes a number click here of major subgroups that used to be separate eBURST groups or clonal complexes (CCs). For ease of reference and comparison with the literature, such subgroups or subCCs are indicated in the figure and subsequent text by their founding ST. All
grey seal isolates from the UK belonged to ST23, which is the founder of eBURST group 2 or CC23 and not related to ST7 or ST283. Piscine isolates from Latin America (ST260) were part of a small eBURST group that also includes ST257, ST259, ST552 and ST553 (Figure 2). The most likely founder of this eBURST group is ST552 and the group is also referred to as CC552. Based on additional analysis of DLVs, ST261 and ST246 may also be related to CC552 whilst ST258 is a TLV of CC552 (Figure 3). Figure 2 Population snapshot of RVX-208 S. agalactiae constructed in eBURST. In addition to the 9 eBURST groups that are shown, 36 singletons were present in the database (last accessed 7 November 2012). Founders of major clonal complexes (ST1, ST17, ST19, all of which form part of eBURST group 1, and ST23, which is the founder of eBURST group 2) and sequence types (ST) identified in the current study are labelled. Italics indicate STs isolated from fish, bold italics indicate the ST from fish and a frog, and shaded labels indicate STs from sea mammals. All β-haemolytic S. agalactiae isolates from fish belonged to a single branch of eBURST group 1, all seal isolates (n=6) belonged to eBURST group 2 and all non-haemolytic isolates belonged to two small eBURST groups that included ST260 and ST261.