The position and number of primary branches are established durin

The position and number of primary branches are established during the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, and several of the genes identified as participating in this process

do so by regulating the meristemic activities of inflorescence. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism that controls inflorescence branch elongation. Here, we report on a novel rice mutant, BMS-777607 in vivo short panicle1 (sp1), which is defective in rice panicle elongation, and thus leads to the short-panicle phenotype. Gene cloning and characterization indicate that SP1 encodes a putative transporter that belongs to the peptide transporter (PTR) family. This conclusion is based on the findings that SP1 contains a conserved PTR2 domain consisting of 12 transmembrane domains, and that the SP1-GFP fusion protein is localized in the plasma membrane. The SP1 gene is highly expressed in the phloem of the branches of young panicles, which is consistent with the predicted function of SP1 and the sp1 phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis implies that SP1 might be a nitrate transporter. However, neither nitrate transporter activity nor any other compounds

transported by known PTR proteins could be detected in either a Xenopus oocyte or yeast system, in our study, suggesting that SP1 may need other component(s) to be able to function as a transporter, or that it transports unknown AZD6094 molecular weight substrates in the monocotyledonous rice plant.”

hydrolysis of cellulose in lignocellulosic materials suffers from slow reaction rates due to limited access to enzyme adsorption sites and to the high crystallinity of the cellulose. In this study, an attempt was made to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis by pretreatment of cellulosic materials using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium formate ([Amim][HCO2]) under mild reaction conditions. The effect of the IL was compared with that of thermochemical pretreatment under acidic conditions.

RESULTSThe lignocellulosic substrates investigated were native and thermochemically pretreated Norway spruce and sugarcane bagasse. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was included for comparison. The IL treatments were performed in the temperature range 45-120 degrees C and, after regeneration and washing of the cellulosic substrates, enzymatic saccharification was carried out at 45 degrees C for 72h. After 12h of hydrolysis, the glucose yields from regenerated native spruce and sugarcane bagasse were up to nine times higher than for the corresponding untreated substrates. The results also show positive effects of pretreatment using [Amim][HCO2] on the hydrolysis of xylan and mannan.

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