This strategy of multiplex PCR amplification would be used to detect more resistance genes with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, two 96-well plates can be placed in parallel in a GeXP machine at the same time, which can be combined with the automation workstation to further increase the throughput of the samples. Conclusions The GeXP assay is a time-saving, cost-effective and high throughput method with high sensitivity and specificity for simultaneously detecting seven common aminoglycoside-resistance genes. Further improvement by large-scale studies for determination of the sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utility of this new method will be needed before GeXP assay
can be implemented VX-765 price effectively selleck inhibitor in routine testing environments for molecular epidemiologic survey of resistance genes and offer a directory suggestion for clinical antibiotic therapy. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Ministry of BB-94 cost Science and Technology, China (2011YQ0301240503 and 201102A212028), the NSFC of Guangdong Province of China, Guangzhou (9151008901000190), the Department of Health of Guangdong Province of China, Guangzhou (A2007499 and A2009518), the Municipal
Bureau of Science & Technology of Guangzhou of China (2010E3-E0361, 2010U1-E00681 and 2010J-E241-1), the Guangzhou Municipal Bureau of Health of China (2009-Zdi-10 and 201102A212028), Guangdong provincial Science and Technology, China
(2012B040304015) and the Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase China Mega-Project for Infectious Disease (2011ZX10004-001, 2012ZX10004-215 and 2013ZX10004-202). Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Minimal inhibitory concentration of antimicrobials and distribution of aminoglycoside resistance genes in 56 clinical isolates. (XLS 21 KB) References 1. Shakil S, Khan R, Zarrilli R, Khan AU: Aminoglycosides versus bacteria–a description of the action, resistance mechanism, and nosocomial battleground. J Biomed Sci 2008,15(1):5–14.PubMedCrossRef 2. Jana S, Deb JK: Molecular understanding of aminoglycoside action and resistance. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2006,70(2):140–150.PubMedCrossRef 3. Kotra LP, Haddad J, Mobashery S: Aminoglycosides: perspectives on mechanisms of action and resistance and strategies to counter resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000,44(12):3249–3256.PubMedCrossRef 4. Ramirez MS, Tolmasky ME: Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Drug Resist Updat 2010,13(6):151–171.PubMedCrossRef 5. Yamane K, Wachino J, Doi Y, Kurokawa H, Arakawa Y: Global spread of multiple aminoglycoside resistance genes. Emerg Infect Dis 2005,11(6):951–953.PubMedCrossRef 6. O’Connor M, De Stasio EA, Dahlberg AE: Interaction between 16S ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein S12: differential effects of paromomycin and streptomycin. Biochimie 1991,73(12):1493–1500.PubMedCrossRef 7.