Although previous work suggests that music reduces preoperative s

Although previous work suggests that music reduces preoperative stress and may be useful during sedation, our results do not support the use of music during surgery.”
“To assess developmental characteristics of nociceptive Selleckchem HM781-36B responses induced by bee venom (BV) injection in neonatal rats, we exposed pups to intra-plantar injection of various BV concentrations given

at different time points between postnatal day 1 and day 28 (P1-P28). Persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN) as well as thermal and mechanical nociceptive response was compared before and after a BV injection. There were distinct age-related changes in the baseline paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) when examined on P1, P4, P7, P14, P21, and P28. The lowest and highest baseline PWTL was shown on P1 and P7, respectively, and PWTL was unchanged from P7 to P28. In contrast, the baseline PWMT remained low before P21 but increased dramatically afterward. Neonatal rats receiving intra-plantar BV injection showed a time-dependent change in nociceptive responses, including (1) a dose-related increase in PSN from P1 to P28; (2) a non-specific decrease (indistinguishable between saline and BV injection) in PWTL and PWMT up to P14 and P21, respectively; and (3) a specific decrease (in response to BV injection only) in PWTL and

PWMT after P14 and P21, respectively. These findings indicate that characteristic changes in the baseline and BV-induced nociceptive response are both time-dependent and modality-specific in neonatal

rats. The data reveal NU7441 manufacturer a critical postnatal period during which nociceptive stimulation could have a significant influence on nociceptive behavior in adult rats and suggest that preclinical models of neonatal nociception should be evaluated according to different postnatal time points. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights VS-6063 concentration reserved.”
“Studies suggest that like selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) reuptake inhibitors, antagonists at neurokinin-1 receptors (NK(1)Rs) may have antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. NK(1)Rs are present in 5-HT innervated forebrain regions which may provide a common point of interaction between these two transmitter systems. This study aimed to investigate for cellular co-localization between NK(1)Rs and 5-HT receptor subtypes in mood-related brain regions in the rat forebrain. With experiments using fluorescence immunocytochemistry, double-labelling methods demonstrated a high degree of co-localization between NK(1)Rs and 5-HT1A receptors in most regions examined. Co-localization was highest in the medial septum (88% NK1R expressing cells were 5-HT1A receptor-positive) and hippocampal regions (e.g. dentate gyrus, 65%), followed by the lateral/basolateral amygdala (35%) and medial prefrontal cortex (31%).

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