Dectin-1, and to a lesser extent Dectin-2, contributed to art

\n\nDectin-1, and to a lesser extent Dectin-2, contributed to arthritis. TLR2, MyD88 and

CR3 played non-essential roles. Observations based on injection of curdlan, laminarin or mannan supported the dominant role of the Dectin-1 pathway in the joint. We demonstrated differential roles for NOD1 and NOD2 and identified NOD2 as a novel and essential mediator of zymosan-induced arthritis.\n\nTogether, Dectin-1 and NOD2 are critical, sentinel receptors in the arthritogenic effects of zymosan. Our data identify a novel role for NOD2 during inflammatory responses within joints.”
“Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesized that sitagliptin, a DPP4-inhibitor, could improve endothelial dysfunction in DM patients with coronary artery selleck products disease (CAD).\n\nMethods and Results: The 40 patients with CAD and uncontrolled DM, aged 68.7+/-9.4 years (mean standard deviation) (50% males, hemoglobin A(1c) [HbA(1c)] 7.4+/-1.0%) were assigned to either additional treatment with sitagliptin (50 mg/day, n=20) or aggressive conventional treatment (control, n=20) for 6 months. Endothelial function was assessed by the reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry index (RHI). The clinical characteristics at baseline

were not different between the groups. After treatment, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and lipid profiles GW786034 concentration were not different between the groups. HbA(1c) levels significantly improved similarly in both groups. The percent change in RHI was greater in the sitagliptin group than in the control group (62.4+/-59.2% vs. 15.9+/-22.0%, P<0.01). Furthermore,

treatment with sitagliptin resulted in a significant decrease in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, but no such change was noted in the control Vactosertib group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant negative relation between changes in RHI and hsCRP, but not between RHI and HbA(1c).\n\nConclusions: Sitagliptin significantly improved endothelial function and inflammatory state in patients with CAD and uncontrolled DM, beyond its hypoglycemic action. These findings suggest that sitagliptin has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system in DM patients. (Circ J 2013; 77: 1337-1344)”
“Loring SH, O’Donnell CR, Behazin N, Malhotra A, Sarge T, Ritz R, Novack V, Talmor D. Esophageal pressures in acute lung injury: do they represent artifact or useful information about transpulmonary pressure, chest wall mechanics, and lung stress? J Appl Physiol 108: 515-522, 2010. First published December 17, 2009; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00835.2009.-Acute lung injury can be worsened by inappropriate mechanical ventilation, and numerous experimental studies suggest that ventilator-induced lung injury is increased by excessive lung inflation at end inspiration or inadequate lung inflation at end expiration.

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