Footnotes: a Zotero, Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media eAddenda: Figures 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and Appendix 1 can be found online at doi:10.1016/j.jphys.2014.07.001 Ethics approval: Not applicable. Competing interests: Nil. Source(s) of support: Nil. Acknowledgements: Nil. Correspondence: Vincent Paramanandam, Physiotherapy Department, Tata Memorial Hospital, India. Email: [email protected] “
“Functional disorders are illnesses in which there is no obvious pathology or anatomical change in an
organ, and there is a presumed dysfunction of an organ or system. Chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue disorders are often-mentioned diagnoses belonging to functional disorders.1 Chronic pain is defined as pain that has lasted longer than 3 to 6 months,2 although find more some use 12 months as the threshold.3 A popular alternative selleck products definition of chronic pain, involving no arbitrarily fixed durations is ‘pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing’.2 Fibromyalgia is a chronic functional illness that presents with widespread musculoskeletal pain, including above and below the waist, as well as the right and left sides of the body, and the physical ﬁnding of 11 of 18 tender points. These simple criteria provide 85% speciﬁcity and sensitivity in differentiating patients with ﬁbromyalgia from those with other rheumatic diseases.4 Chronic fatigue
is defined as persistent or relapsing fatigue lasting more than 6 months, with more than four of the following symptoms: impaired memory, sore throat, tender cervical or axillary lymph nodes, muscle pain, multifocal joint pain, new headaches, unrefreshing sleep, and post-exertion malaise.4 A challenging diagnostic dilemma with regard to the above diagnoses is overlap of symptoms. Chronic widespread pain, the cardinal
symptom of fibromyalgia, is prevalent and co-occurs with numerous symptom-based MTMR9 conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, joint pain and psychiatric disorders.5 Estimates of the number of patients with fibromyalgia who meet the criteria for chronic fatigue disorders range from 30 to 70%.4 Fibromyalgia syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome are similar in many ways – both conditions lack an accepted disease model that can explain signs and symptoms in terms of specific pathophysiological abnormalities.6 In Europe, 19% of adults experience chronic pain of moderate to severe intensity with serious negative implications for their social and working lives.7 Fatigue is also a common symptom in the community, affecting from 0.007 to 2.8% in the general adult population and from 0.006 to 3.0% in primary care.8 Fibromyalgia syndrome affects 2 to 4% of the general population, and over 5% of patients in general medical practice.9 Recent studies have confirmed previous evidence of the enormous indirect socioeconomic costs of chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue disorders.