Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether

Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether intake of RWPs is able to prevent these effects in rats and, if so, to characterize the underlying mechanism. Methods: VEGF and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression was assessed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting, MMP-2 activity by zymography, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) Apoptosis inhibitor formation by dihydroethidine. Results: Ang II increased VEGF expression and MMP-2 activity in the aortic wall. Ang II-induced MMP-2 activation is inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine and MnTMPyP. Ang II increased the

expression of eNOS, the formation of ROS and the nitration of proteins. The stimulatory effects of Ang II on these factors are prevented by RWPs intake. Conclusions: Infusion of Ang II induced vascular expression of VEGF and peroxynitrite-dependent activation of MMP-2, with both effects being prevented by RWPs intake. Thus, prevention of VEGF and MMP-2 expression might be involved in the protective effect of red wine on coronary heart diseases. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.”
“We have investigated effects of letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, on spatial learning and memory, expression of neural BTSA1 mw cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) and catecholaminergic neurotransmitters

in the hippocampus and cortex of female rats. In the intact model, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=8). Control received saline alone. Letrozole was administered to the animals in the second and third groups by daily oral gavage at 0.2 and 1 mg/kg doses, respectively, for 6 weeks. Another group of letrozole-treated rats was allowed to recover for 2 weeks. In the second model, 24 rats were ovariectomized (ovx) and the first group served as control. The second group received letrozole (1 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Ovx rats in the third group were given letrozole (1 mu g/kg) plus estradiol (E-2) (10 mu g/rat). At the end, all rats were tested in a spatial version of the Morris water maze. Then they were decapitated and the brains rapidly removed. Catecholamine concentrations were determined by high Sinomenine performance liquid chromatography

with electrochemical detection. NCAM 180,140 and 120 isoforms were detected by Western blotting. Uterine weights were significantly reduced by letrozole in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01) which returned to control values following 2 weeks of recovery (P<0.05). Serum E-2 levels followed a similar course (P<0.01). Although improvement in spatial learning performance of letrozole-treated rats was not statistically significant, the high-dose letrozole-treated group remained significantly longer in the target quadrant compared with the control (P<0.05). Administration of letrozole to ovx animals significantly reduced the latency (P<0.001) and increased the probe trial performance compared with ovx controls (P<0.05).

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