s also e pressed less UGDH protein in rat OA cartilage than that

s also e pressed less UGDH protein in rat OA cartilage than that the normal cartilage. Taken together, the suppressed protein e pression and the unchanged enzyme activity of UGDH help to e plain selleck chem the inability of chondrocytes to handle the continuous GAG loss in the advanced OA. However, the OA cartilage samples from either the OA patients undergoing total knee replacement or the rats with papain induced OA, an aggressive model with an acute local inflammation in the joints and a rapid progress to the terminal stage of OA, were all at their advanced stages, which could not fully replicate the natural pathogenesis of OA dynamically. Other milder models with a more natural and mimic process, like the aging model and running model etc, would be better for the investigation in the role of UGDH in OA.

Meanwhile, how the e pression of UGDH was suppressed in articular chondrocytes still remained unclear. IL 1B is one of the major pro inflammatory factors highly e pressed in cartilage and synovium throughout the OA pathogenesis and responsible for the PGs loss and cartilage degeneration. However, Manei et al. reported that e ogenous IL 1B failed to modulate UGDH enzyme activity in articular chondrocytes, while Hickery et al. also found that IL 1, another member of the IL 1 family, could neither modulate UGDH activity. In the present study, we observed that UGDH gene e pression was stimulated by IL 1B after a 12 hour e posure, which was in accordance with the results from Manei et al, while obvious inhibitions of UGDH gene e pression were observed after IL 1B treatment at higher concentrations or for longer time, which thus resulted in the suppressed synthesis of GAG in the chondrocytes.

All these findings indicated that IL 1B might possibly be involed in the suppression of UGDH protein e pression in OA cartilage, and that the restricted UGDH e pression induced by IL 1B, rather than the negligible alteration of UGDH enzyme activity, that might participate in the compensation and decompensation of cartilage matri during OA pathogenesis. However, as IL 1B presents plentiful effects on cartilage, the functional measurement of IL 1B on GAG precursor synthesis would further strengthen the evidence in the Entinostat present study. Meanwhile, as there are multiple factors involved in OA pathogenesis, other stimuli including 17B oestradiol, TGF B and IGF 1 could also be involved in this process through modulate either the enzyme activity or gene e pression of UGDH.

Combining the evidences that UGDH plays an essential sellectchem role in GAG synthesis and cartilage homeostasis, we suggest that UGDH might be possibly a novel target for OA therapy. Previous studies have demonstrated that IL 1B acts through the activation of downstream signaling cascades. IL 1B binds to type 1 IL 1 receptor and then triggers the downstream cascade reaction, which finally leads to the activation of SAP JNK, p38 MAPK and NF ��B signaling pathway. However, although all the three pathways are involved in the met

it was also reported

it was also reported selleck products in breast cancer pa tients that the objective response to trastuzumab mono therapy had a median duration of 9 months, and that the majority of responsive patients displayed resistance within 1 year. Conversely, combination therapy with trastu zumab and an ErbB2 Neu T helper peptide vaccine was well tolerated and it was associated with minimal to icity in patients with metastatic breast cancer. In addition, the combinatorial approach of the vaccine with passive immunotherapy resulted in prolonged, robust, antigen specific immune responses in treated patients and induced epitope spreading. In agreement with these evidences it is reasonable to investigate ErbB2 cancer vaccine ap proaches with the aim to improve the objective tumor in hibitory response in salivary gland carcinomas.

Po virus represents an attractive delivery vehicle of tumor antigens due to the normal post translational modi fication of the inserted antigen and strong immunogenicity. Engineered attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus encoding for tumor associated antigens has now been widely employed as a cancer vaccine in several clinical trials. Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus can be achieved by systemic or local intratumoral injection. Recently, it was demonstrated that the antitumor activ ity induced by i. t. vaccination with an avipo virus e pressing carcinoembryonic antigen and multiple co stimulatory molecules was superior to that induced by systemic vaccination in CEA transgenic mice.

Similarly, we recently demonstrated that local delivery of recombinant vaccinia virus encoding for neu was superior to systemic vaccination in inhibit ing the neu oncogene mediated mammary carcinogenesis. Besides, i. t. injection of recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine has been reported to significantly inhibit Her 2 neu e press ing tumor growth. The vaccine elicited transformation of immunosuppressive myeloid derived suppressor cells into TNF secreting neutrophils and reduced the generation of Treg cells. Similarly, i. t adenovirus vaccination supported the generation of both Neu and Ad specific T effector cells. Of note, it was reported that i. t. vaccin ation with vaccinia e pressing the tumor antigen HY and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor was able to overcome immunological ignorance to the tumor antigen.

Dacomitinib Head and neck cancers are loco regional dis eases that appear at or close to the body surface and are easily accessible. Thus, the accessibility of salivary gland tumors allow one to envision intratumoral immunother apy in a neoadjuvant setting. The attempt to use intratumoral vaccination in HNC was reported by Dasgupta et al. In this study it was demonstrated selleck SB203580 that recombinant vaccinia virus e pressing interleukin 2 invoked anti tumor cellular immunity in an orthotopic murine model of HNC. However, no antigen was delivered by using this approach. In this report, we investigated the efficacy of the rV neuT intrat

were sensitized to caspase 3 activation when stably e pressing re

were sensitized to caspase 3 activation when stably e pressing recombinant caveolin 1. Large increases in caveolin 1 e pression have also been observed in apop totic agent treated mouse peritoneal macrophages. In addition, retrovirus insertion mediated random muta genesis applied to L292 cells revealed caveolin 1 Perifosine is neces sary for apoptosis induced by TNF . These reports highlight a growing body of evidence indicating that up regulated e pression of caveolin 1 is associated with cell apoptosis. This study has now shown, for the first time, that caveolin 1 itself induces apoptosis of rat anterior pituitary epithelial cells of the GH3 cell line. We have shown that caveolin 1 mRNA e pression was fur ther enhanced in GH3 cells after 24 hours of bromocrip tine stimulation.

It is known that with bromocriptine stimulation of GH3 cells leads to accumulation of wild type p53. There are two consensus half sites in the caveolin 1 promoter that are predicted to be wild type p53 binding sites. Previ ous e periments have also shown that transfection of wild type p53 into human skin fibroblasts is accompanied by a si fold increase in caveolin 1 promoter transcription activity. Therefore, and supported by evidence from this study, we speculate that bromocriptine enhances caveolin 1 e pression via an increase in wild type p53 e pression in GH3 cells. Caspases play critical roles in the initiation and e ecution of the apoptotic process. We found that, at least in part, caspase 8 might be required for caveolin 1 induction of GH3 cell apoptosis.

In contrast, up regulation of cave olin 1 sensitizes NIH3T3 fibroblasts and T24 bladder car cinoma epithelial cells to apoptotic stimuli via increased activation of caspase 3. Caveolin 1 up regulation is also associated with simvastatin induced apoptosis of thi oglycollate elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. this effect was independent of caspase activity, because the general caspase inhibitor Z VAD Fmk failed to block cell death. Together these results indicate caveolin 1 mediates cellular apoptosis through variant signaling pathways in different cell types. Treatment of lymphocytes and NIH3T3 cells with H2O2 or UV light induces phosphorylation of caveolin 1 Tyr14.

In addition, caveolin 1 phosphorylated at Tyr14 specifically co localizes with pa illin at focal adhesion comple es after epidermal growth factor, insulin or H2O2 treatment, suggesting phosphorylation of caveolin 1 is associated with cellular morphological changes and shrinkage when cells adapt to e ternal cellular GSK-3 stresses. In addition, etoposide, a therapeutic agent for leukemia, in inducing tumor cell apoptosis, increases phosphorylation of caveolin 1 Tyr14 in HL 60 cells. We demonstrated that phosphorylation of caveolin 1 Tyr14 was increased after Oligomycin A bromocriptine treatment and this accelerated GH3 cells apoptosis, indicating phosphoryla tion of caveolin 1 Tyr14 may be important for bromocrip tine mediation of cellular apoptosis or morphological changes in c

imatinib and up regulated by NGF treatment for 2 h To derive a b

imatinib and up regulated by NGF treatment for 2 h. To derive a biological meaning from the individual lists of V560G c Kit and NGF TrkA selleck chem 17-AAG modulated genes, we uploaded these lists to Ingenuity Pathways Analysis application for biological function and path way analysis. Out of a total of 524 genes modulated by imatinib treatment 510 genes mapped to the IPA knowl edge database with 428 genes for functions pathways analysis. Out of 117 NGF induced genes accepted by the IPA knowledge database, 106 mapped for functions pathways analysis. A comparison of the two gene lists revealed a common set of 58 genes out of 117 NGF upregulated genes that were also down modulated by imatinib. This suggests that NGF TrkA signaling regulates many genes the expres sion of which are also regulated by V560G c Kit in HMC 1 cells.

NGF TrkA activation does not enhance expression of genes involved in immune related functions that were downregulated by imatinib treatment Since the expression of 452 genes out of 510 genes which were downregulated by imatinib treatment for 4 h was not restored by the stimulation with NGF for 2 h, we next analyzed the two datasets using PANTHER protein class analysis which measures the significance of certain functional categories among these targets by their enrichment relative to the total numbers in their respective categories. As shown in Table 2, immune response component genes such as cytokines and cytokine receptors genes were significantly downre gulated by imatinib treatment. In contrast, NGF TrkA does not acti vate receptor genes significantly.

In addi tion, NGF TrkA activated cytokine genes but drastically fewer genes than c Kit mediated gene modulation. These data suggest that NGF can take over the proliferation signal but not immune related function induced by c Kit. More than 67% of NGF TrkA upregulated genes are involved in cell survival and proliferation We next analyzed genes which are upregulated by NGF TrkA signaling by IPA analysis. Significantly, over 67% of upregulated genes are involved in survival and prolifera tion. Although the immediate early response genes, such as EGR4, c FOS, or FOSB are also down stream of c Kit signaling, these genes are not constitu tively expressing. Therefore, several c Kit inducible genes were not downregulated by imatinib treatment.

To con firm the micro array data, we performed quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to examine the relative expression level of c FOS, JUNB, EGR1, and c MYC. HMC 1 cells were incubated without serum for 17 h and were then treated with imatinib for 4 h. Cells were stimu lated with NGF for 30 and 120 min. All samples Batimastat were standardized by expression level of glucuronidase beta mRNA. In agreement with the micro array data, qRT PCR analysis revealed that immediate selleck Pacritinib early response genes, such as c FOS JUNB, and EGR1, were upregulated upon stimulation with NGF compared to expression level in untreated HMC 1 cells. Standardization of RNA level using

Th2 lineage To extend our transcriptional analysis into transcrip

Th2 lineage To extend our transcriptional analysis into transcrip tional regulation, we decided to systematically analyze selleck chem both genome wide transcription factor binding site predictions made in silico and comprehensive literature derived information about target genes of selected TFs. First, we predicted which of the transcription factors have binding sites in the RefSeq gene promoters using the ProbTF tool combined with an empirical p value computation. We focused on genes that were identified by the pre vious LIGAP analysis and considered all transcription factors that had known binding specificities in TRANSFAC. We did not restrict our analysis only to those TFs whose transcripts are differentially expres sed because, e. g.

STAT6 is not differentially expressed during the early differentiation although it is a master regulator in the early differentiation of Th2 cells. An important goal is to identify master regulators of the lineage commitment processes. Recently, it was found out that most of the direct targets of STAT6, an important regulator of Th2 differentiation, were up regulated in Th2 cells. Here we were interested in identifying TFs whose binding sites are enriched in the promoter regions of the genes which are differentially regulated in Th2 con ditions, both among the up regulated and down regulated genes. Instead of looking at individual TF binding predic tions that are prone to contain false positives, we used the Fishers exact test to search for enrichment of binding sites, in comparison to randomly selected gene set.

The same analysis was carried out separately for all the diffe rentially regulated gene sets and by taking into account the direction of regulation. Using a p value cut off of 0. 01 for TF binding, we identified three hits from the enrichment analysis among Th2 specific up regulated genes and three among the Th2 specific down regulated genes. The results are de picted in Figure 6. The different enriched IRF family motifs were combined and their targets were pooled. In accordance to our previously published results, the strongest hit AV-951 within the Th2 up regulated genes was STAT6, followed by NKX3A, and CDP. NKX3A is a member of the NKX family of homeobox genes that is expressed in prostate epithelium and functions as a potential prostate tumor suppressor. Recently, in a study focusing on Jurkat cells, a GATA3 binding site on the promoter of NKX3 gene was identified.

Furthermore, in mouse in creased expression of Nkx3a was observed to be regula ted by IL 4 independently of STAT6. CDP is highly conserved homeodomain transcription factor involved in many cellular processes, including differentiation, selleck chemicals Idelalisib development and proliferation. Interestingly, CDP has been identified as a repres sive regulator of CD8 silencer region and TCRB enhancer region and plays a role in promoting repressive chromatin modifications via association with histone deacetylase 1 and histone 3 methyltransferase. It is important to notice that the bindi

functional hints for these novel candidates,

functional hints for these novel candidates, Gemcitabine purchase we pre dicted the potential target genes of these miRNAs by using TargetScan, and carried out gene ontology en richment analysis with GOrilla of predicted target genes. We found that the potential function of Can didate 11 may be involved in regulating energy production and G protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. Con sidering that Candidate 11 has highest expression at P3, which is a peak stage for gliogenesis in cortex, we fur ther examined whether it affects the proliferation of glial cells using cultured rat C6 glial cell line. Interestingly, overexpression of Candidate 11 in C6 cells increased the cell proliferation, whereas suppressing the endogenous Candidate 11 by overexpressing a specific sponge RNA reduced the cell proliferation.

This result supports the notion that this novel miRNA may regulate the gliogenesis during cortical development. Potential stage specific RNA modification during cortical development Recent studies showed that miRNAs may undergo cleav age at the 3 end by specific exoribonuclease, resulting in the existence of multiple isoforms of variant lengths. We note that in all cortical RNA samples, variability in the length of miRNAs was detected as addition and or trimming of nucleotides at both 3 end and 5 end of mature miRNAs. Majority of known miR NAs underwent trimming at both 3 and 5 ends. However, trimming for several miRNAs including rno miR 1, rno miR 196a, rno miR 207, rno miR 347, and rno miR 742 was not detected, possibly due to the low abundance of trimmed isoforms rather than a selective protection of modifications.

Consistent with previous findings in Drosoph ila and in Human, we found that 3 end trimming is the most frequent type of isomiR in all cortical samples. This also suggests that there is no stage specific regulation of the trimming of miRNAs. Dataset Drug_discovery S4 provides a complete list of the name and relative abun dance of all detected isomiRs of known miRNAs. RNA editing has emerged as one important posttran scriptional mechanism that introduces nucleotide changes in RNA sequence, such as cytidine to uridine and adenosine to inosine via deamination, and may play important regulatory roles in the nervous system. Although the majority of editing events happens to pri miRNA and appear to affect the miRNA processing step, some nucleotide alterations happen in the seed sequence of mature miRNAs.

These edited mature miRNAs with altered seed sequence are likely to sup press a set of genes different from those targeted by un edited miRNAs. We sellekchem systemically examined the nucleotide changes of mature miRNAs by alignment of unannotated tags with mature sequence of miRNAs allowing one nucleotide mismatch. We discovered 160 miRNAs with single nucleotide modification located across the mature sequence with obviously higher frequency of modification detected at the seed and flanking regions. The existence of such a peak in nucleotide changes at seed and flanking sequence

le hybridization signals

le hybridization signals phase 3 could represent putative NATs found for the first time in the turbot transcriptome. miRNAs, are one of the most rele vant short NATs classes and function as regulators of gene expression at the level of translation, with an essen tial input in developmental processes. Due to their growing importance in regulating gene expression, several miRNA databases have been already created. In Table 11, we show a selection of ten miRNAs from those identified in the Turbot 3 database including their num ber of reads, which could be considered as a gross indi cator of their expression level. To our knowledge, these miRNAs are the first to be identified in turbot. Further work is being carried out on the turbot database for de veloping a consistent bioinformatic pipeline for miRNA identification, as well as for their validation using a Q PCR approach.

Conclusions This is the first time that the transcriptome of the repro ductive and the immune systems of turbot have been widely explored together. Both systems are essential for the survival of individuals and are of primary importance for commercial aquaculture. This study was designed to fill in the gap of genomic resources in turbot and therefore to improve available turbot sequence databases, specifically in genes related to reproduction. The large amount of gen erated sequences resulted in one of the most complete available databases for flatfish, with more than half of the resources annotated by both gene and functional category.

The detailed and focused se quence assembly and gene annotation strategies allowed the identification of several genes involved in the immune and the reproductive systems, being most of them involved in key functions. A large amount of genetic markers was identified, providing new tools for genomic studies. The performance of an informative pilot microarray was assessed and identification of putative miRNAs was possible. Thus, NGS technologies represent an essential tool to increase exponentially genomic resources in non model species, opening new insights for our understanding Cilengitide of key biological processes and addressing production bottlenecks in their aquaculture. Methods Animals were treated according to the Directive 2010 63 UE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for experimentation and other scientific purposes.

All experimental protocols were approved by the Institu tional Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Santiago de Compostela. Sanger sequencing Experimental design and samplings The E. scophthalmi infection trial was performed at the facilities of CETGA. Na ve turbot from a balanced mixture method of five unrelated families with known pedigree, hatched and reared at a commercial fish farm were sent to CETGA facilities and acclimated to experimental condi tions for 10 days before the beginning of the experiment. R and C fish were kept in separate tanks in two separated recircul

Preliminary SAR studies have identified slight modifications to t

Preliminary SAR studies have identified slight modifications to the two side chains of this structure that modulate the inhibitory activity selleck chemical of zantrin Z3. Collectively, these studies will help focus future investigations toward the establishment of probes for FtsZ that fill the roles of colchicine and taxol in studies of tubulin.
An unprecedented amount of parallel synthesis information was accumulated within Pfizer over the past 12 years. This information was captured by an informatics tool known as PGVL (Pfizer Global Virtual Library). PGVL was used for many aspects of drug discovery including automated reactant mining and reaction product formation to build a synthetically feasible virtual compound collection. In this report, PGVL is discussed in detail.

The chemistry information within PGVL has been used to extract synthesis and design information using an intuitive desktop Graphic User Interface, PGVL Hub. Several real-case examples of PGVL are also presented.
Peptides containing the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) motif are known to bind CD13 isoforms expressed in tumor vessels and have been widely used for tumor targeting. Residues flanking the NGR sequence play an important role in modulating the binding affinity and specificity of NGR for the CD13 receptor. Herein, we have used a rapid, easy, and reliable peptide array whole cell binding assay for screening a library of NGR peptides with different flanking residues. A peptide array consisting of forty-five NGR containing peptides was synthesized on a cellulose membrane, followed by screening against CD13 positive (HUVEC and HT-1080) and CD13 negative cell lines (MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB-231).

The library screening led to the identification of five cyclic and acyclic NGR peptides that display higher binding (up to 5-fold) to CD13 positive cells with negligible binding to CD13 negative cell lines when compared to the lead sequence cyclic CVLNGRMEC. Peptides with high binding affinity for the CD13 positive Batimastat cells also showed improved in vitro cellular uptake and specificity using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Interestingly, the identified peptides resemble the NGR sequences present in the human fibronectin protein. These NGR peptides are promising new ligands for developing tumor vasculature targeted drugs, delivery systems and imaging agents with reduced systemic toxicity.

We present here the use of a simultaneous TGA/DSC thermal analyzer as a high-throughput reactor system to measure after calibration the heat of reaction and therefore the catalytic activity of heterogeneous catalysts in a fast, reliable and reproducible manner. By coupling the gas outlet of the analyzer with a mass spectrometer via kinase inhibitor Axitinib a heated capillary additional data can be acquired. As a test reaction the oxidation of carbon monoxide with synthetic air, using Hopcalite and several transition and noble metals as catalysts, was chosen.

However, they have not systematically examined the emissions prop

However, they have not systematically examined the emissions properties of these different yet related carbon nanomaterials toward understanding their mechanistic origins.

In Ganetespib HSP (e.g. HSP90) this Account, we examine the spectroscopic features of the observed photoluminescence emissions in graphene materials. We associate the structural characteristics in the underlying graphene materials with those emission properties as a way of classifying them into two primary categories: emissions that originate from created or induced energy bandgaps in a single graphene sheet and emissions that are associated with defects in single- and/or multiple-layer graphene. We highlight the similarities and differences between the observed photoluminescence properties of graphene materials and those found in other carbon nanomaterials including carbon dots and surface defect-passivated carbon nanotubes, and we discuss their mechanistic implications.

“Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its x electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene’s properties Including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp2 carbon structures In graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes.

These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions.

Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because Entinostat perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C=C cycloaddition reactions with graphene.

In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene.

Further study is needed SB203580 manufacturer to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates In these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations warrant comprehensive studies.

Plzf is a transcriptional regulator that can

Plzf is a transcriptional regulator that can selleck chem inhibitor both repress and activate gene expression. The function of Plzf may depend on its interaction partners in cells. In the study of David et al. Plzf represses transcription by recruiting a histone deacetylase through the SMRT mSin3 HDAC co repressor complex. In contrast, Plzf is found to activate GATA4 transcription by binding to angiotensin II activated AT2 receptor. Plzf contains an N terminal BTB POZ domain and nine kruppel like C2H2 aurora kinase C promoter activity by Plzf are not different in the presence of Znf179 or not. We speculate that, first, the protein level of ectopic Plzf expression in the Plzf transfected only cells may be enough for the maximal sup pression. Second, Znf179 indeed affects the ability of Plzf to regulate aurora kinase C promoter activity.

However, the effect of Znf179 on Plzf repression activity is compen sated by the increase of Plzf protein. However, it is still possible that Znf179 may affect the ability of Plzf to regu late specific downstream target genes. Plzf is subject to several different post translational modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation and conjugation to ubiquitin and SUMO 1. Btbd6a was found to promote the relocation of Plzf from nucleus to cytoplasm and targets Plzf for ubiquitination and deg radation. In contrast, the deubiquitinating enzyme USP37 interacts with Plzf which increases Plzf protein sta bility. In addition, Plzf is found to be phosphorylated by CDK2 on Ser197 and Thr282 and this phosphorylation results in a decrease in protein stability.

In our study, we have found that Znf179 interacts with Plzf and in creases the ectopic expression of Plzf at posttranscrip tional level. It is possible that interaction of Plzf with Znf179 may affect its interaction with other protein and or alters Brefeldin_A its post translational modification, which results in an increase of the Plzf protein. The expression of the Znf179 gene is restricted to the brain and is regulated during brain development. However, the Plzf is widely expressed in neural progenitors and functions to inhibit neurogenesis. The interaction and reciprocal regulation between Znf179 and Plzf during the neurogenesis is an important issue. Znf179 is a RING finger protein with a characteristic C3HC4 motif located in the N terminus.

It is known that many RING finger proteins act as E3 ubiquitin ligases and are associated with the ubiquitin proteasome thenthereby pathway. In human genome, more than 600 RING finger proteins were annotated as E3s. Whether Znf179 functions as an E3 ubiquitin lig ase needs to be further investigated. Our results reveal that Znf179 interacts with Plzf and increased Plzf expression at posttranscriptional level. In other words, if Znf179 func tions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, Plzf may not be its sub strate. Plzf is found to be an adaptor of E3 ligase cullin 3. In the study of Mathew et al.