The prevalence rates of motor symptoms in schizophrenia are surprisingly high, and recent studies indicate a possible pathobiology. In particular, the development and maturation of the human motor system appears to be closely linked to the emergence of motor symptoms observed in schizophrenia. Post-mortem and neuroimaging results demonstrated aberrant structure and function of premotor and motor cortices, basal ganglia, thalamus, and the connecting white matter tracts. Animal models have focused
on aberrant neurotransmission and genetic contributions. Findings of localized abnormal oligodendrocyte function and myelination point to the special role of the white matter in schizophrenia, and recent Verubecestat ic50 studies specifically found an association between motor abnormalities and white matter structure in schizophrenia. This review of the literature supports the idea that motor symptoms are closely related to the neurodevelopmental disturbances of schizophrenia and a distinct syndromal dimension with its own pathophysiology. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Introduction: Previous studies have evaluated the effect of modafinil on residual NU7441 supplier excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)
under effective CPAP treatment. Even though those trials also used placebo groups, we suppose that the placebo effect might influence the patients’ response to modafinil.
Methods: Twenty sleepy patients with OSAS under CPAP treatment were selected. All of them had Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) > 10. Following baseline evaluation (T1), all subjects were instructed to take placebo for 7 days. After this single-blind placebo phase and second evaluation (T2), patients were randomly allocated to placebo or modafinil treatment for 21 days in a double-blind protocol. Patients underwent a final evaluation (T3) on the last day of drug intake. The evaluations
at T1, T2 and T3 consisted of. medical and laboratory examinations, nocturnal polysomnography, ESS, maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) and complex reaction time (CRT-NY). buy PS-341 In addition, in T2 and T3 the change of illness severity scale (CGI-C) and the evaluation of quality of life. (SF-36) were applied.
Results: The comparison between the two groups during the three periods studied, showed the following results: in the modafinil group, ESS score did not change during the initial placebo period, but there was a significant reduction during the modafinil treatment period (p=0.0006); in the placebo group a significant reduction occurred during the initial placebo period (p=0.05), and no further change was observed in the treatment (placebo) period. A significant difference was found between the two groups after the placebo period (T2) (p=0.02). Three patients (33%) of the modafinil group and 9 patients (81%) of the placebo group were classified as placebo-responsive (X-2 : p=0.