The observed changes in the optoelectronic properties are attribu

The observed changes in the optoelectronic properties are attributed to the modification in the atomic bonding structures, which were induced by N incorporation, accompanied by an increase in the sp(2) carbon bonding configurations and their relative disorder. The electrical conductivity variation was interpreted in terms of local effects on the nature and energy distribution of pi and pi* states. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3462442]“
“Potato

(Solanum tuberosum L.) periderm is composed of the meristematic phellogen that gives rise to an external layer of suberized phellem cells (the skin) and the internal parenchyma-like phelloderm. The continuous addition of new skin layers and the sloughing of old surface SRT2104 order layers during tuber maturation results in smooth, shiny skin. However, smooth-skin varieties frequently develop unsightly russeting in response to high soil temperatures. Microscopic observation of microtubers exposed to high temperatures (37 degrees C) suggested heat-enhanced development and accumulation of suberized skin-cell layers. To identify the genes involved in the periderm response to heat stress, Selleck PXD101 skin and phelloderm samples collected separately from immature tubers exposed to high soil temperatures (33 degrees C) and controls were subjected to transcriptome profiling using a potato

cDNA array. As expected, the major functional group that was differentially expressed SBE-β-CD in both skin and phelloderm consisted of stress-related genes; however, while the major up-regulated phelloderm genes coded for heat-shock proteins, many of the skin’s most up-regulated sequences were similar to genes involved in the development of protective/symbiotic membranes during plant-microbe interactions.

The primary activities regulated by differentially expressed peridermal transcription factors were response to stress (33%) and cell proliferation and differentiation (28%), possibly reflecting the major processes occurring in the heat-treated periderm and implying the integrated activity of the stress response and tissue development. Accumulating data suggest that the periderm, a defensive tissue, responds to heat stress by enhancing the production and accumulation of periderm/skin layers to create a thick protective cover. Skin russeting may be an indirect outcome; upon continued expansion of the tuber, the inflexible skin cracks while new layers are produced below it, resulting in a rough skin texture.”
“Sacral neuromodulation is an established treatment modality for urge incontinence, urinary retention, and urgency/frequency syndromes. Potential indications as well as approved indications will be reviewed with emphasis on clinical characteristics that predict success. Therapeutic trial-either a peripheral nerve evaluation or a staged implant-remains the most accurate predictor of success.

The control group did not change their diet

The DASH-

The control group did not change their diet.

The DASH-diet group complied with the diet as shown by significant reductions in systolic (P<0.001) and diastolic (P=0.005) BP, and in plasma C-reactive protein (P<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.01) and apolipoprotein B (P=0.001), a novel finding. Body weight changed by <1 kg. There were no changes in the control group. FG 4592 We found no changes in FMD, or in ATBF, in the DASH-diet

group, although heart rate fell (P<0.05). Glucose and insulin concentrations did not change. In this small-scale study, the DASH diet lowered BP independently of peripheral mechanisms. Journal of Human Hypertension (2010) 24, 312-319; doi:10.1038/jhh.2009.65; published online 6 August 2009″
“Major depression is a common diagnosis in older individuals. The authors present preliminary findings on the response to sertraline in depressed BEZ235 mw elderly patients with and without dementia. Previous research on antidepressant treatment in elderly patients suggests that it is effective in treating depression. The authors followed depressed patients with and without dementia. Treatment response was more marked in the subgroup without dementia, but

there was no statistically significant difference in response between the two subgroups. Depressed elderly patients with dementia may improve on antidepressant treatment, although treatment response may be less robust than in depressed patients without dementia. (The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; 23:358-361)”
“The dielectric, electrical and structural properties of (1-x) (0.94Bi(1/2)Na(1/2)TiO(3)-0.06BaTiO(3))-xK(0.5)Na(0.5)NbO(3) (BNT-BT-xKNN) with x=0.09, 0.12, 0.15, and 0.18 were investigated as potential candidates for high-temperature capacitors with a working temperature far beyond 200 degrees C. Temperature dependent dielectric permittivity (epsilon) showed

two local broad maxima that at the optimal composition of KNN (x=0.18) are combined to form a plateau. This then results in a highly temperature-insensitive permittivity up to similar to 300 degrees C at the expense of a small reduction in absolute permittivity values. High-temperature in situ x-ray diffraction study showed pseudocubic symmetry without obvious structural changes, which implies that the dielectric anomalies observed could only be a consequence of a slight change in selleck compound space group. BNT-BT-0.18KNN showed a permittivity of similar to 2150 at the frequency of 1 kHz at 150 degrees C with a normalized permittivity epsilon/epsilon(150 degrees C) varying no more than +/- 10% from 43 to 319 degrees C. With very good electrical properties persisting up to 300 degrees C, i.e., a resistivity on the order of magnitude of 10(8) Omega m and the RC constant of about 1 s, the examined BNT-BT-xKNN compositions present a good starting point for the development of high-temperature capacitor materials. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics.

This was a retrospective clinical analysis

of 89 patients

This was a retrospective clinical analysis

of 89 patients who underwent hysteroscopic adhesiolysis by monopolar electrode knife. A second-look office hysteroscopy was performed in all cases after 2 months. On second-look hysteroscopy, 12 patients showed reformation of adhesions and needed a repeat procedure.

The mean age of the patient was 28.4 years. In the majority (64%) of patients, the possible cause of Asherman’s syndrome Buparlisib order was previous curettage on gravid uterus. The overall conception rate was 40.4% after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. The mean conception time after surgery was 12.8 months. There was no conception in patients who needed repeat adhesiolysis. The conception rate was higher (58%) in mild Asherman’s syndrome compared to 30% conception rate in moderate and 33.3% conception rate in severe cases. There was no significant association between conception rate and preoperative menstrual pattern. There was significant higher likelihood

of conception rate (44.3%) in those who continued to have improved menstrual pattern compared to only 10% likelihood of conception in those who continued to have amenorrhea after adhesiolysis. The live birth rate was 86.1% and miscarriage rate was 11.1%. Cumulative pregnancy rate showed that 97.2% patients conceived within 24 months. There was increased incidence (43.8%) of cesarean section. Four (12.5%) patients had postpartum hemorrhage for adherent placenta.

Hysteroscopic adhesiolysis for Asherman’s syndrome LY3023414 datasheet is a safe and effective method of choice for restoring menstrual function buy 17DMAG and fertility.”
“To

study the efficacy and safety of performing anterior mesh (Perigee) with vaginal reconstructive surgeries (sacrospinous ligament fixation) for treatment of advanced prolapse.

One hundred twenty-eight patients, POP-Q stage III (n = 85) or IV (n = 43), underwent surgery. The objective cure was defined as less than stage 2 prolapse. Introital ultrasonography was used for mesh morphological evaluation.

Post-operative data were available for 120 patients. At 30 months, the objective cure was 91.8%. The subjective cure was 93.3% on POPDI-6 feedback. No apical and anterior recurrence was observed. Surgical complications were minor. Five cases (4.1%) of mesh extrusion was observed. Mesh shortening, shrinkage, and thickening was also observed.

The combination of anterior vaginal mesh and vaginal reconstructive surgery appears to be a safe and effective in restoring the anatomy and achieving favorable pelvic function. The anterior mesh deployed seems to cover a lesser area than anticipated. A longer period of follow-up is necessary to confirm its efficacy.”
“Study Design. In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical study.

Objective. This study quantifies the multidirectional flexibility of the spine following laminoplasty and laminectomy after cervical disc arthroplasty.

Summary of Background Data.

Understanding the effects of living donation on recipient outcome

Understanding the effects of living donation on recipient outcomes was the only ABT-737 datasheet factor that would affect donors’ decision to donate again. A total of 40% of donors reported feeling some pressure to donate. Donors who are related to the recipient were more likely to report feeling pressure

to donate. We conclude that more studies of informed consent are needed to identify factors that may compromise the validity of informed consent.”
“The angular dependence of magnetoresistance (MR) of distributed NbN-Fe-NbN Josephson-junctions in the out-of-plane and in-plane magnetic field geometries shows a striking anisotropy on the polarity of the current

(I+/I-) and its direction with respect to the applied field. The origin of this anisotropy is suggested to be the difference in the degree of spin polarization of electrons injected from Fe nanoplaquettes into the superconducting NbN for I+ and I-. Such a conclusion is based on the topography of flux-closure domains in Fe plaquettes. The anisotropy of MR is suppressed at high fields as the flux-closure domains transform into a single-domain structure. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3510590]“
“Stating the main problem:

Only few reports have detailed perioperative management and outcome of combined heart and liver transplantation (CHLT), and none describe the long-term renal function.

Methods:

Three patients

presented clinical signs of cardiomyopathy GSK126 cell line with reduced ejection fraction and proven cirrhosis Selleck Blebbistatin with evidence of portal hypertension. Two of them presented renal failure, and the other pulmonary hypertension. After cardiac transplantation and closure of the sternum, liver transplantation was performed using systematically venovenous double-limb (portal and caval) bypass.

Results:

Mean cold ischemic time for heart and liver was 2 h 46 min and 12 h 47 min, respectively. Intraoperative hemodynamics remained grossly stable during surgery. Mean transfusions were 12 red blood cell packs. All three patients received anti-R-Il2 antibodies at post-operative day 1 and 4. Mean plasma creatinine concentration was 90 +/- 8 mu mol/L one yr post-CHLT, vs 160 +/- 62 mu mol/L pre-CHLT. All three patients are alive with functional grafts after a mean follow-up of 26 months (12-38).

Conclusion:

CHLT could be performed safely through two consecutive and independent usual procedures. Perioperative hemodynamic stability, minimal blood loss, and routine splanchnic decompression are probably major determinants of a favorable outcome and good long-term renal function.

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3363-3374,

(C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3363-3374, 2012″
“Laparoscopy, because of its availability and safety, provides a valuable tool in the evaluation of undiagnosed chronic pelvic pain. It mTOR inhibitor is a simple and definitive means of establishing the presence or absence of pelvic pathology without resorting to major abdominal surgery.

To evaluate the causes of chronic pelvic pain using laparoscopy and to correlate between clinical examination, ultrasonography, and laparoscopy.

The present prospective study was done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Pt. BD Sharma, PGIMS Rohtak. Fifty cases of chronic

pelvic pain attending gynae OPD were included in the study. After detailed history, examination, investigations, and ultrasonography, the patients were subjected to laparoscopy.

The mean age and parity of the patients with CPP was 30.88 +/- A 7.71 years and 1.74 +/- A 1.38, respectively. The mean duration of pain was 2.8 years (6 months-8 years). The commonest finding on laparoscopy was adhesions in 40%, endometriosis in 18%, and pelvic congestion syndrome in 20%, while 10%

of the patients had normal pelvis. Laparoscopic findings were taken as gold standard and pelvic examination and ultrasonographic findings were compared with it.

Clinical examination and ultrasonography has a sensitivity of 8.1 and selleck 2%, respectively. Laparoscopy helps in detecting many causes of CPP which clinical methods and ultrasonography fail to identify. This enforces the position of laparoscopy as a gold standard in evaluation of this

condition.”
“Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has generated interest for use in electrical energy storage, mostly due to its high dielectric constant compared to other polymers. There still exist challenges, such as its high energy losses, that have prevented large scale commercialization of PVDF-based capacitors, but progress is continuously being made. In this paper we explore a promising route to improve the energy storage performance of PVDF, through a synergy of HFP comonomers and of kaolinite clay nanofillers. SYN-117 This study shows that the addition of these high aspect ratio fillers to poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VDF-HFP)] copolymers does not increase the polar phase and, consequently, these composites exhibit markedly enhanced dielectric properties at high electric fields. Specifically, strained films of these composites exhibit reduced high field losses, markedly increased breakdown strength and, thus, large recoverable energy density values, in the range of 19 J/cm(3). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3609082]“
“Objective

To study the use of fine needle cytology (FNC) in the diagnosis of orbital and gelid lesions.

Hence, it was hypothesized that this PAS2 residue forms a key dis

Hence, it was hypothesized that this PAS2 residue forms a key distinction between the phyA and phyB phytochrome species.”
“Background: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes

including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.

Methods and Findings: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health this website Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) based on an in-home polysomnogram. selleck chemicals llc Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women) died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: <5 events/h), the fully adjusted hazard ratios

for all-cause mortality in those with mild (AHI: 5.0-14.9 events/h), moderate (AHI: 15.0-29.9 events/h), and severe (AHI: >= 30.0 events/h) sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08), 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86), respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33). Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered Fer-1 mw breathing showed a pattern of association

similar to all-cause mortality.

Conclusions: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing.”
“The electronic transport process in nanotubes and nanowires along their axes is investigated. Attention is focused on the distribution of current within the structure, which is found to exhibit well-defined oscillations in the radial direction. The case in which an external magnetic field parallel to the nanowire or nanotube axis is applied to the system is also considered. In all cases, the origin of the oscillations and corresponding periods are identified. Effects of this behavior on the transport properties of nanotubes and nanowires are noted. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3653972]“
“Nishi S.


“Background: Administrative data are a valuable source of


“Background: Administrative data are a valuable source of estimates of diabetes prevalence for groups such as coronary heart

disease (CHD) patients. The primary aim of this study was to measure concordance between medical records and linked administrative health data for recording diabetes in CHD patients, and to assess temporal differences in concordance. Secondary aims were to determine the optimal lookback period for identifying diabetes in this patient group, whether concordance differed for Indigenous people, and to identify predictors of false positives and negatives in administrative data.

Methods: A population representative sample of 3943 CHD patients hospitalized in Western Staurosporine in vivo Australia in 1998 and 2002-04 were selected, and designated according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) version in use at www.selleckchem.com/erk.html the time (ICD-9 and ICD-10 respectively). Crude prevalence and concordance were compared for the two samples. Concordance

measures were estimated from administrative data comparing diabetes status recorded on the selected CHD admission (‘index admission’) and on any hospitalization in the previous 1, 2, 5, 10 or 15 years, against hospital medical records. Potential modifiers of agreement were determined using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression models.

Results: Identification of diabetes on the index CHD admission was underestimated more in the ICD-10 than ICD-9 sample (sensitivity 81.5% versus 91.1%,

underestimation 15.1% versus 4.4% respectively). Sensitivity increased to 89.6% in the ICD-10 period using at least 10 years of hospitalization history. Sensitivity was higher and specificity lower in Indigenous patients, and followed a similar pattern of improving concordance with increasing lookback period. Characteristics associated with false negatives for diabetes on the index CHD hospital admission were elective admission, in-hospital death, principal diagnosis, and in the ICD-10 period only, fewer recorded comorbidities.

Conclusions: The accuracy of identifying diabetes status in CHD patients is improved in linked administrative health data by using at least 10 years of hospitalization history. Use of this method would reduce GSK2126458 ic50 bias when measuring temporal trends in diabetes prevalence in this patient group. Concordance measures are as reliable in Indigenous as non-Indigenous patients.”
“Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant condition whose effects are mediated through deficient blood vessel formation and regeneration, with multisystem involvement. Patients are usually aware of resulting skin telangiectasia and epistaxis, but are also exposed to dangers posed by occult vascular malformations in other organs.

9 (2 7–45 2, 95%% CI p aEuroS < aEuroS0 0001)

Con

9 (2.7–45.2, 95%% CI p aEuroS < aEuroS0.0001).

Conclusions. aEuro integral An abnormal plasma fructosamine level increases the chances selleck chemical of CCE occurring among referral pregnant women with PGDM.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on glucose homeostasis and islet insulin

secretion in Western diet (WD) obese rats.

Male Wistar rats received a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 32 weeks of diet, WD rats were submitted to duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB) or sham (WD S-DJB) operation. Intraperitoneal (ip) glucose tolerance test was performed 1 week after surgery. Body weight, fat pad depots, glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and glucose-induced insulin secretion were evaluated 1 month after surgery.

Body weight and fat pads of the WD group were higher than those of the CTL group. Sham and DJB surgeries did not alter these parameters. WD and WD S-DJB rats were glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and hyperinsulinemic. WD DJB rats showed similar glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and plasma insulin levels to those of CTL rats. WD rats presented higher fat and glycogen contents in the liver. DJB surgery normalized fat and glycogen stores in the liver of the WD DJB group. Insulin release at 11.1-mM glucose, in isolated islets from WD and WD S-DJB rats, was

higher than from islets of CTL rats. In contrast, DJB surgery improves the beta-cell secretory capacity with increased glucose-induced secretion at 5.6-, 11.1-, and 22.2-mM glucose in WD DJB islets, compared with CTL islets.

DJB surgery improves glucose homeostasis and enhances beta-cell glucose responsiveness in rats submitted Small molecule library to the WD diet without any modification in adiposity.”
“We report a case

of a 21-year old male with an asymptomatic solitary costal exostosis incidentally detected on a chest X-ray. The exostosis originated from the costochondral junction of the left fourth rib and protruded into the thoracic cavity. Exploratory thoracoscopy www.selleckchem.com/products/ldn193189.html showed that the exostosis had scratched the adjacent pericardium and visceral pleura. A 5.5-cm long rib segment including the exostosis was excised. This report describes that the thoracoscopic findings of an asymptomatic costal exostosis originate from the costochondral junction, demonstrating that this condition may cause more extensive thoracic organ injury than expected.”
“Methods. aEuro integral In the 1-year period (1 January 2007–31 December 2007), four-dimensional ultrasound has been used to assess Kurjak antenatal neurodevelopmental test (KANET) in low- and high-risk pregnancies after randomization in prospective longitudinal cohort study. Based on the KANET scores, the fetuses were considered as normal (>= a parts per thousand yen14 points), borderline (6–13), or abnormal (0–5).

Results. aEuro integral Comparison of KANET scores in low- and high-risk pregnancies were expectedly statistically significant.

This is a prospective study, setting in a Hospital JP Garrahan, a

This is a prospective study, setting in a Hospital JP Garrahan, a tertiary and referral center of Buenos Aires, Argentina. All patients with cardiac surgeries between 1/11/01 to 1/1/2002 were included. The median age of p was 30 months (r: 1-212 m), 184 p (53%) were boys, 21% (75) had underlying disease, being the genetic disorders or undernutrition the most frequent, 56 p (16%) had previous Selleck Buparlisib surgery, 36 p (10%) had received previous antibiotics and 30 (9%) of them had previous infection,

An ASA score higher than or equal to 3 was found in 308 p (88%). Median hospital stay before surgery was 1 day (r1-120 d), 88 p (25%) nedeed inotropic support with epinephrine, 147 p (42%) needed mechanical ventilation during a median time of 4 days (r: 1-66d). Drainage with thorax opened was done in 339p (97%) for a median time of 2 days (r: 1-7d). Total hospital stay was between 1 and 120 days (median 5 days). Postsurgical infections developed in 38 of 350p (11%). Superficial wound infection in 4 p (1%), 5 p (1.5%) had deep infection, 3p (1%) had mediastinitis and 26 p (7.5%) had other nonsurgical infections Eleven p (3%) died. By multivariate study underlying diseases (p<0.012) OR 4.22 (CI 1.38-12.8), inotropic EPZ5676 in vitro support with epinephrine (p<0.027) OR 4.04 (CI 1.17-13.9) and postoperative stay longer than 12 days were found to be risk factors for infections. We concluded

that presence of underlying diseases, longer hospitalization and inotropic support were risk factors for infections.”
“The medial temporal lobe (MTL) encompasses a network of interconnected cortical areas that is considered the neural substrate for some types of memory, such as spatial, episodic, recognition, and associative memory. Within the MTL, the subiculum has been well characterized CH5424802 research buy in terms of its connectivity and structure, but its functional role remains elusive. A long-held view is that the subiculum is mainly involved in spatial encoding

because it exhibits spatially selective firing and receives prominent projections from the CA1 field, which is an essential substrate for spatial memory. However, the dorsal subiculum (DS) is also reciprocally connected to the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices, which are critically involved in recognition memory. This connectivity pattern suggests that DS might encode not only spatial signals but also recognition signals. Here, we examined this hypothesis by recording with multi-electrodes in DS and CA1 of freely behaving mice, as they performed the novel object recognition (NOR) task. Analysis of network oscillations revealed that theta power was significantly higher in DS when mice explored novel objects as compared to familiar objects and that this theta modulation was absent in CA1. We also found significant differences in coherence between DS and CA1, in the theta and gamma bands, depending on whether mice examined objects or engaged in spatial exploration.

Results: Our unique approaches revealed the direct effects of BoN

Results: Our unique approaches revealed the direct effects of BoNT/A in inhibiting neuropeptide release

and firing rates Ulixertinib in afferents following bladder injections. beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonists are demonstrated to directly inhibit afferent nerve firing independent of the relaxing effects on bladder smooth muscle. Moreover, data suggest the expression of these receptors on DRG neurons that send projections to the bladder. The mechanism of action of PDE5 inhibitors on bladder overactivity is discussed. Discussion: The questions raised during the plenary session of the 2011 International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society meeting regarding the benefits of BoNT/A, beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist and PDE5 inhibitor treatments of overactive bladder are addressed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the abovementioned agents, in low enough concentrations, can directly inhibit afferent excitability without decreasing detrusor contractility. Accordingly, they have considerable potential for treating the sensory component of

lower urinary tract dysfunctions. Neurourol. Urodynam. 31:300-308, 2012. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“We present the results of an investigation into the special traits of conversion of azo dyes Acid Orange 6, Acid Orange 7, Methyl Orange, and Methyl Red under anaerobic conditions in comparison ZD1839 chemical structure to aerobic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, only Methyl Red underwent decomposition, while under oxygen-free conditions, all remaining substances

were fully decolourised under the action of a methanogenous consortium of microorganisms. The products of reduction Crenigacestat of the azo bond are determined in the case of each dye. Introduction of additional acceptors of electrons (sulfate and nitrate) had a negative influence on the discoloration of azo dyes. Addition of ethanol as an available organic cosubstrate accelerated decomposition of azo dyes both under methanogenous and sulfate- and nitrate-reducing conditions. There is no direct correlation between the rates of conversion of azo dyes under anaerobic conditions or their toxicity to acetoclastic methanogens. Changes in the morphological composition of the community decolouring an azo dye depended on the duration of its impact on microorganisms. The mechanism of the reduction of the azo bond under the action of substances acting as mediators is explained. These substances are products of the metabolism of the microbial community in anaerobic conditions. It is shown that the supposed mediators NADH and sulfide efficiently decolourise azo dyes in a cell-free system, while riboflavin significantly increased the rate of conversion of substrates in recurrent cycles of discoloration only in the presence of an anaerobic microbial consortium.”
“Monitoring carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) in vivo is still a great challenge.