NE cells are found in all stages of prostate cancer and are “”freely”" dispersed throughout the tumour. Independent groups of researchers have shown that NE cells lack or do not express the androgen receptor . NE cells produce specific proteins, such as neuron specific enolase (NSE), chromograninA (CgA), bombesin, serotonin,
somatostatin, a thyroid-stimulating-like peptide, parathyroid hormone-related peptides, and calcitonin which are secreted into the blood stream. These NE hormones have growth-factor activities on both normal and malignant prostatic tissues. A number of them have also been shown to activate or be activated by oncogenes, as well as being functionally related to oncogenes [4, 5]. NE cells may also have a NVP-HSP990 cell line paracrine impact on the stroma cell growth factor release . It has been hypothesized that the paracrine effect of the neurosecretory cell products on adjacent cells can contribute to the growth and differentiation of prostatic cells. In fact, stromal growth factors, such as epithelial growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) balance changes may be responsible for the progression of prostate cancer too . Thirteen years ago, Kadmon et al. reported that circulating CgA, main NE product, was elevated in 48% of subjects with metastatic prostate
check details cancer . This evidence highlighted the importance of serum CgA monitoring in prostate cancer patients . ChromograninA is an excellent marker of NE cells and of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in prostate carcinomas either in terms of tissue or the blood stream . The detection of this marker in the blood of patients with prostate cancer indicates a NED, either of a primary
tumour or an association with a ARRY-438162 metastases . Tumours displaying NE features are reported to be more aggressive and resistant to hormone therapy . Some BCKDHB authors claimed that CgA is an independent prognostic marker in clinical under-staging of PC , while others failed to find this correlation . Many groups have attempted to identify risk factors that could help to early detect more aggressive PC such as those with NE characteristics. The knowledge of such risk factors could facilitate the clinical management of such tumours and prolong survival. The aim of our study was to analyzed the incidence of pre-operative circulating CgA in a population of non metastatic prostate cancer patients. Serum PSA levels, pathological staging and the Gleason score were also evaluated. Methods This is a single centre study. The present retrospective study examined data of 740 consecutive patients with clinically non-metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that were enrolled from 2003 to 2006 at the Urology Department of our Institute for radical prostatectomy (RRP).