NE cells are found in all stages of prostate cancer and are “”fre

NE cells are found in all stages of prostate cancer and are “”freely”" dispersed throughout the tumour. Independent groups of researchers have shown that NE cells lack or do not express the androgen receptor [3]. NE cells produce specific proteins, such as neuron specific enolase (NSE), chromograninA (CgA), bombesin, serotonin,

somatostatin, a thyroid-stimulating-like peptide, parathyroid hormone-related peptides, and calcitonin which are secreted into the blood stream. These NE hormones have growth-factor activities on both normal and malignant prostatic tissues. A number of them have also been shown to activate or be activated by oncogenes, as well as being functionally related to oncogenes [4, 5]. NE cells may also have a NVP-HSP990 cell line paracrine impact on the stroma cell growth factor release [4]. It has been hypothesized that the paracrine effect of the neurosecretory cell products on adjacent cells can contribute to the growth and differentiation of prostatic cells. In fact, stromal growth factors, such as epithelial growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) balance changes may be responsible for the progression of prostate cancer too [6]. Thirteen years ago, Kadmon et al. reported that circulating CgA, main NE product, was elevated in 48% of subjects with metastatic prostate

check details cancer [7]. This evidence highlighted the importance of serum CgA monitoring in prostate cancer patients [7]. ChromograninA is an excellent marker of NE cells and of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in prostate carcinomas either in terms of tissue or the blood stream [3]. The detection of this marker in the blood of patients with prostate cancer indicates a NED, either of a primary

tumour or an association with a ARRY-438162 metastases [8]. Tumours displaying NE features are reported to be more aggressive and resistant to hormone therapy [9]. Some BCKDHB authors claimed that CgA is an independent prognostic marker in clinical under-staging of PC [10], while others failed to find this correlation [11]. Many groups have attempted to identify risk factors that could help to early detect more aggressive PC such as those with NE characteristics. The knowledge of such risk factors could facilitate the clinical management of such tumours and prolong survival. The aim of our study was to analyzed the incidence of pre-operative circulating CgA in a population of non metastatic prostate cancer patients. Serum PSA levels, pathological staging and the Gleason score were also evaluated. Methods This is a single centre study. The present retrospective study examined data of 740 consecutive patients with clinically non-metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma that were enrolled from 2003 to 2006 at the Urology Department of our Institute for radical prostatectomy (RRP).

CrossRef 23 Solomon PS, Ipcho SVS, Hane JK, Tan K-C, Oliver RP:

CrossRef 23. Solomon PS, Ipcho SVS, Hane JK, Tan K-C, Oliver RP: A quantitative PCR approach to determine gene copy number. Fungal Genetics Reports 2008, 55:5–8. Author’s contributions JPG carried out most of the experiments and participated in the drafting of the manuscript. RPO and RDG participated in the design of the study and the interpretation of the data. PSS ICG-001 mw conceived the study, participated in the experiments and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background H. pylori is a microaerophilic, spiral shaped Gram-negative bacterium that chronically infects the gastric mucosa [1]. It is recognised as a

human pathogen associated with chronic gastritis [1], peptic ulcer [2] and gastric cancer [3], the Proteasome inhibitor development of which are related to the virulence factors cytotoxin associated antigen (CagA) [4, 5] and vacuolating cytotoxin A (vacA) [6, 7]. It has been reported selleck inhibitor that CagA and VacA polymorphisms are associated with distinct pathological features in H. pylori infected adults with gastrointestinal diseases [8–14]. CagA has emerged as a major virulence factor for gastroduodenal disease severity, including an increased cancer risk [9, 15]. CagA is injected into epithelial cells mediated

by a type IV secretion system [4, 16, 17]. In the host cell, CagA localises to the inner surface of the plasma membrane and becomes phosphorylated on specific tyrosine residues within repeating penta amino acid Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA)

motifs present at the C-terminus of the protein [18–20]. This part of the protein is encoded by the variable 3’-region of the cagA gene [4, 5, 21, 22] (Figure  1). Four different cagA EPIYA motifs have been defined according to the amino acid sequence that surrounds the EPIYA residues; EPIYA-A, -B, -C and -D [20, 22–25]. CagA toxins nearly always possess EPIYA-A and EPIYA-B, followed by varying numbers of EPIYA-C in Western-type isolates [22]. In East Asian-type of clinical H. pylori isolates, EPIYA-A and -B are, on the other hand, commonly followed by an EPIYA-D motif [24, 25]. It has been suggested that the considerable variation in number of repeating EPIYA-C motifs at the C-terminus of the protein may alter the biological activity of CagA in phosphorylation-dependent Adenosine triphosphate as well as phosphorylation-independent ways [20, 26]. It was suggested that the number of cagA EPIYA-C motifs and the tyrosine phosphorylation status of CagA are important risk factors for gastric cancer among Western strains [27]. This is also supported by a higher risk of cancer development in strains with a high degree of phosphorylation [28]. Figure 1 A) Schematic illustration of the H. pylori 26695 cagA gene. and indicate the position of the primers used in PCR amplification. B) Amino acids flanking the EPIYA motifs present in EPIYA-A, EPIYA-B, and EPIYA-C segments of H. pylori 26695.

We would also like to thank Carolyn Foster for her assistance in

We would also like to thank Carolyn Foster for her assistance in preparation of the manuscript. Financial support was provided by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education

(Grant No. N N405 623138). Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References Banerjee PS, Sharma PK (2012) New antiepileptic agents: structure–activity relationships. Med Chem Res 21:1491–1508CrossRef buy Epacadostat Barton ME, Klein BD, Wolf HH, White HS (2001) Pharmacological characterization of the 6 Hz psychomotor seizure model of partial epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 47:217–227PubMedCrossRef Bialer M, White HS (2010) Key factors in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugs. Nat Rev Drug Discov 9:68–82PubMedCrossRef Bialer M, Johannessen SI, Levy RH, Perucca E, Tomson T, White HS (2013) Progress report on new antiepileptic drugs: a summary of the Eleventh Eilat Conference (EILAT XI). Epilepsy Res 103:2–30PubMedCrossRef Brodie MJ (2001) Do we need any more antiepileptic drugs? Epilepsy Res 45:3–6PubMedCrossRef Brown WC, Schiffman DO, Swinyard EA, Goodman LS (1953) Comparative

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An equal amount (2μg) of bacterial protein was loaded to perform

An equal amount (2μg) of bacterial protein was loaded to perform SDS-PAGE and a 1:2000 dilution of

anti-BabA polyclonal antibody (Ab, a gift from Prof. Odenbreit) was used in a western blot [17]. The detection of BabA protein was eFT-508 concentration performed with Super Signal® West Pio Chemiluminescent substrate (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Rockford, IL, USA) and exposed in an LAS-3000 imaging system (Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan). Statistics Statistical analysis was performed by the Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney U test and Student’s t test as appropriate. The difference was considered significant with a p value less than 0.05. Acknowledgements We thank Robert M. Jonas for his comments on this article. The study was financially supported in part by grants 98-2628-B-006-013-MY3 AMPK activator from the National Science Council, grant NHRI-EX99-9908BI from the National Health Research Institute, and grant DOH99-TD-C-111-003 from Department of Health, Taiwan. SAHA HDAC price References 1. Rauws EA, Tytgat GN:

Cure of duodenal ulcer associated with eradication ofHelicobacter pylori. Lancet 1990,335(8700):1233–1235.PubMedCrossRef 2. Graham DY, Hepps KS, Ramirez FC, Lew GM, Saeed ZA: Treatment ofHelicobacter pylorireduces the rate of rebleeding in peptic ulcer disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 1993,28(11):939–942.PubMedCrossRef 3. Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP, Chang Y, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N, Sibley RK: Helicobacter pyloriinfection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med 1991,325(16):1127–1131.PubMedCrossRef 4. Amieva MR, El-Omar EM: Host-bacterial interactions inHelicobacter pyloriinfection. Gastroenterology 2008, 134:306–323.PubMedCrossRef

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putida and P alcaligenes but forms an individual

putida and P. alcaligenes but forms an individual HSP990 mw branch. The other two Proteobacteria identified pure cultures belonged to the genera Variovorax (SMX332) and Brevundimonas (SMXB12). The isolated Variovorax SMX332 fell into the Variovorax paradoxus/boronicumulans group with a sequence similarity >99% to V. paradoxus (EU169152). The Brevundimonas

sp. SMXB12 was clearly separated from its closest relatives Brevundimonas basaltis and B. lenta and formed its own branch. Both Actinobacteria affiliated pure cultures were identified as NU7026 mouse Microbacterium spp. and were embedded in a new phylogenetic tree as their phylogenetic position was too far from the other isolates (Figure 1B). The two isolated species were affiliated to two different clades clearly separated from M. lacus and M. aurum. Microbacterium sp. SMXB24 fell into the same group

as Microbacterium sp. 7 1 K and M. hatatonis but the branch length clearly showed separation. Microbacterium sp. SMX348 was closely related with a sequence similarity of >99% to Microbacterium sp. BR1 which was found to biodegrade SMX in an acclimated membrane bioreactor [29]. SMX biodegradation studies with JQ-EZ-05 nmr pure cultures Setups with sterile biomass (heat-killed) and without biomass (abiotic control) proved SMX to be stable under the operating conditions. Therefore sorption onto biomass or other materials was shown to be negligible. Photodegradation was excluded by performing all experiments in the dark. To characterize biodegradation ability and rate and evaluate an optimal nutrient environment for SMX utilization of the isolated and identified 9 pure cultures, subsequent experiments were performed. In the presence of readily degradable carbon and/or nitrogen sources (Figures 2 and 3) SMX was faster biodegraded compared to setups with SMX as sole carbon/nitrogen source (Figure 3). 54 setups (three media for each of the 9 cultures in duplicate setups) with different nutrient compositions were set up and SMX biodegradation rates were evaluated using UV-AM values (Table 2). Different SMX biodegradation

patterns were observed oxyclozanide proving that the presence or absence of readily degradable and complex nutrients significantly influenced biodegradation. Figure 2 Aerobic SMX biodegradation patterns of pure cultures in MSM-CN media. A, B) measured with UV-AM, initial SMX concentration 10 mg L-1. C, D) LC-UV analyses of SMX concentrations in the used pure cultures in MSM-CN. Determination was performed at experimental startup, after 4 and 10 days to verify UV-AM values. Asterisks indicate measured values below limit of detection. Shown are mean values of SMX absorbance in duplicate experiments. Standard deviations were too low to be shown (<1%). Figure 3 Aerobic SMX biodegradation patterns of pure cultures in MSM media. A, B) measured with UV-AM, initial SMX concentration 10 mg L-1.

PLoS One 2009, 4:e4576 PubMedCrossRef 13 Pircher A, Ploner F, Po

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Miyazawa H, Huqun , Tanaka T, Udagawa K, Kato M, Fukuyama S, Yokote A, Kobayashi K, Kanazawa M, Hagiwara K: Genetic heterogeneity of the epidermal growth factor receptor in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines revealed by a rapid and sensitive detection system, the HSP inhibitor review peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid PCR clamp. Cancer Res 2005, 65:7276–7282.PubMedCrossRef 19. Tanaka T, Nagai Y, Miyazawa H, Koyama N, Matsuoka S, Sutani A, Huqun , Udagawa K, Murayama Y, Nagata M, Shimizu Y, Ikebuchi K, Kanazawa M, Kobayashi K, Hagiwara K: Reliability of the peptide nucleic acid-locked Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp-based test for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations integrated into the clinical

practice for non-small cell lung cancers. Cancer Sci 2007, 98:246–252.PubMedCrossRef 20. Kimura H, Kasahara K, Kawaishi M, Kunitoh H, Tamura T, Holloway B, Nishio K: Detection of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in serum as a predictor of the response to gefitinib in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2006, 12:3915–3921.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SD carried out the molecular analysis, MJR participated in the design of the study and drafted the manuscript, SL carried out immunohistochemestry analysis, FdeF designed the study, carried out the molecular analysis and drafted the manuscript. All authors reviewed the draft manuscript, read and approved the final version for submission.

Lancet Infect Dis 2005, 5 (9) : 568–580 PubMedCrossRef 34 Okeke

Lancet Infect Dis 2005, 5 (9) : 568–580.PubMedCrossRef 34. Okeke IN, Aboderin AO, Byarugaba DK, Ojo O, Opintan JA: Growing problem of multidrug-resistant enteric pathogens in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 2007, 13 (11) : 1640–1646.PubMed 35. Nugent R, Okeke IN: When medicines fail: recommendations for curbing antibiotic resistance. J Infect Dev Bucladesine cell line Ctries 2010, 4 (6) :

355–356.PubMed 36. Lane DJ: 16S/23 S rRNA sequencing. In Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics. Edited by: Stackebrandt E, Goodfellow M. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 1991:115–175. 37. NCCLS: Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests, 8th Edition; Ilomastat cell line Approved standard. Villanova, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; 2003:130. 38. O’Brien TF, Stelling JM: WHONET: an information system for monitoring antimicrobial resistance. Emerg Infect Dis 1995, 1 (2) : 66.PubMedCrossRef 39. CLSI: Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptiblity tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, 7th Edition; Approved standard. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2006. 40. Blattner FR, Plunkett G, Bloch CA, Perna NT, Burland V, Riley M, Collado-Vides J, Glasner JD,

Rode CK, Mayhew GF, et al.: The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 1997, 277 (5331) : 1453–1474.PubMedCrossRef 41. Liu J-H, Deng Y-T, Zeng Z-L, Gao J-H, Chen L, Arakawa Y, Chen Z-L: Coprevalence of plasmid-mediated EPZ015938 concentration quinolone resistance Sclareol determinants QepA, Qnr, and AAC(6′)-Ib-cr among 16 S rRNA methylase RmtB-producing Escherichia

coli isolates from pigs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008, 52 (8) : 2992–2993.PubMedCrossRef 42. Wu J-J, Ko W-C, Tsai S-H, Yan J-J: Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants QnrA, QnrB, and QnrS among clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae in a Taiwanese hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007, 51 (4) : 1223–1227.PubMedCrossRef 43. Deguchi T, Yasuda M, Nakano M, Ozeki S, Kanematsu E, Nishino Y, Ishihara S, Kawada Y: Detection of mutations in the gyrA and parC genes in quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae . J Antimicrob Chemother 1997, 40 (4) : 543–549.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions SSN performed molecular experiments, analysed and interpreted data, and contributed to writing the paper. JAO collected isolates and performed microbiology experiments. RSL designed and performed molecular experiments. MJN co-conceived the study and collected isolates. INO co-conceived the study, performed microbiology and molecular experiments, analysed and interpreted data and wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) is an enteropathogenic bacterium transmitted via food or water and may cause sporadic infections as well as foodborne outbreaks of yersiniosis [1–5].

Another good target for the detection of anaerobic aromatic hydro

Another good target for the detection of anaerobic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms is the enzyme benzylsuccinate synthase (Bss), which is involved in the anaerobic degradation of toluene and xylene, via fumarate addition to the methyl group, transforming these compounds into benzylsuccinates. Bss has been identified in all anaerobic toluene-degrading microorganisms studied to date, and is composed by three subunits, of which, α subunit, encoded by bssA gene is the target for molecular studies. This gene is highly conserved and has LY2874455 in vivo been employed as a molecular marker for

the characterization of environmental samples [20–22]. Despite the importance of crude oil pollution in coastal environments, little attention has been paid to bacterial diversity and anaerobic degradation potential of crude oil hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments. Therefore, the aims of this study were: to compare microbial RAD001 price community profiles in sediments from different depths; to quantify total bacteria and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as a function of depth; and to screen for the presence of key genes involved in anaerobic

hydrocarbon degradation in mangrove sediment. Results Sediment porewater sulphate concentration In the current study, sulphate was measured at each studied depth, and in the learn more surface sediment (0–5 cm layer), its concentration was 14.9 mM. Sediment from the two other studied depths, 15–20 cm and 35–40 cm, had a sulphate concentration of 3.6 mM. This suggests an active sulphate reduction zone Farnesyltransferase in the top 15 cm of the sediment. These values reflect the influence of seawater (28 mM sulfate) in mangrove ecosystems, which is introduced by tidal activity. Sediment microbial community analyses: PCR-DGGE for 16S rRNA, bamA and dsr genes To study the bacterial community profile, genomic DNA extracted from sediment samples

was analysed by PCR using universal primers to amplify 16S rRNA gene fragments. Amplicons with the expected size of 430 kb were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the results showed a clear distribution of the bacterial populations within the three studied depths (Figure 1), revealing the occurrence of two main clusters: one cluster from the 0–5 cm layer, and another associated with sediment samples from both 15–20 and 35–40 cm depth. Figure 1 16S rRNA dendrogram for different depths of mangrove sediment and the gel image. Dendrogram generated based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of 16S rRNA gene fragments from triplicates of mangrove sediment from 3 different depths: 0–5, 15–20 and 35-40 cm, and the DGGE gel image. To study the SRB community at different sediment depths PCR-DGGE was performed using primers targeting the dsr gene that encodes the dissimilatory bi-sulphite reductase enzyme that is present in all sulphate reducers [23].

clavuligerus or N lactamdurans [16, 20, 21, 31–34, 42, 43] Base

clavuligerus or N. lactamdurans [16, 20, 21, 31–34, 42, 43]. Based on results of cultivations using only lysine as additive (Figure 2), concentrations of amino acid ranging from 0 to 7.4 g l-1 were selected in order to minimize its effect on biomass production.

With respect to find more alpha-aminoadipic acid, concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.64 g l-1 were selected due to superior cephamycin C volumetric production results obtained in this range (Figure 3). As to lysine, the highest volumetric production of cephamycin C was observed at 48 hours, which varied little at 72 hours (Figure 2B). The highest volumetric production values for the basal medium with 1,3-diaminopropane or alpha-aminoadipic acid were observed at 72 hours. With respect to cadaverine and putrescine, the highest volumetric production values observed at 48 and 72 hours were almost eFT508 mw the same. For this reason, cultivation time was standardized to 72 hours for the experimental designs and bioreactor processes. The chosen experimental design (CCF) and the concentration range employed for the compounds under investigation (independent variables), together with the use of response surface methodology for statistical treatment of the data obtained at 72 h cultivation, allowed for the adjustment of quadratic models to predict cephamycin C production at 90% confidence level. The generated response surfaces

and their corresponding second-order polynomials are shown in Figure 4.

Table 3 shows the analyses PAK5 of variance (ANOVA) of the fitted models, including the F-test to verify the overall significance of each model, its associated probabilities p(F), and determination coefficient R2. Figure 4 Fitted response surfaces (at 90% confidence level) for cephamycin C concentration (CephC). Batch cultivation (72-hour) in shaken-flasks in media containing: (A) lysine (Lys) and alpha-aminoadipic acid (AAA), (B) lysine (Lys) and 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3D), (C) lysine (Lys) and cadaverine (Cad), and (D) lysine (Lys) and putrescine (Put). Table 3 Analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the quadratic models regressions at 90% confidence level   Lysine and alpha-aminoadipic acid (R2 = 0.9543*) Lysine and 1,3-diaminopropane (R2 = 0.9544*) Source SS DF MS F p SS DF MS F p Model 13,068.14 5 2,613.63 25.06** 6.0 x 10-4 15,993.37 5 3198.67 25.10** 6.0 x 10-4 Residual 625.82 6 104.30     764.58 6 127.43     Lack of fit 509.35 3 169.78 4.37 0.128 441.58 3 147.19 1.37 0.402 Pure error 116.47 3 38.82     323.00 3 107.67     Total 13,693.96 11       16,757.95 11         Lysine and cadaverine (R 2   = 0.9793*) Lysine and putrescine (R 2   = 0.9006*) Source SS DF MS F p SS DF MS F p Model 3,080.16 5 616.03 56.77** <10-4 3,650.07 5 730.01 10.87** 5.7 x 10-3 Residual 65.10 6 10.85     402.82 6 67.14     Lack of fit 32.35 3 10.78 0.99 0.503 318.82 3 106.27 3.79 0.151 Pure error 32.75 3 10.92     84.00 3 28.

A third swab was obtained in a similar manner and placed into Ami

A third swab was obtained in a similar manner and placed into Amies transport medium (Nuova Aptaca, Canelli, Italy) for anaerobic culture. Grading of Gram-stained vaginal smears The Gram stained vaginal smears were scored by two independent assessors (GC and RV) according to the criteria previously described by Verhelst et al [7]. Briefly, Gram-stained vaginal smears were categorized as grade I (normal) when only Lactobacillus

cell types were present, as grade II (intermediate) when both Lactobacillus and bacterial vaginosis-associated cell types were present, as grade III (bacterial vaginosis) when bacterial vaginosis-associated cell types were abundant in the absence of lactobacilli, as grade IV when only gram-positive cocci were observed, and as grade I-like when irregularly shaped or curved

selleck compound gram-positive rods were predominant [7]. For the purpose of this study, grade I or Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microflora is designated as ‘normal vaginal microflora’ and all other grades as ‘abnormal vaginal microflora’. Culture and identification of cultured isolates by tDNA-PCR Trichostatin A The swab on Amies transport medium was streaked onto Schaedler agar enriched with 5% sheep blood, vitamin K, haemin and EPZ004777 price sodium pyruvate (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) and incubated anaerobically at 37°C upon arrival at the microbiology laboratory. After 4 days of incubation, all the isolates with different colony morphology were selected for identification. DNA was extracted by simple alkaline lysis: one colony was suspended in 20 μl of 0.25% sodium dodecyl sulfate-0.05 N NaOH, heated at 95°C for 15 min and diluted Amrubicin with 180 μl of distilled water. tDNA-PCR and capillary electrophoresis were carried out as described previously [36, 37]. The species to which each isolate belonged was determined

by comparing the tDNA-PCR fingerprint obtained from each isolate with a library of tDNA-PCR fingerprints obtained from reference strains, using an in-house software program [37]. The library of tDNA-PCR fingerprints is available at our website and the software can be obtained upon request [38]. DNA extraction of vaginal swab samples For DNA extraction from the dry vaginal swabs, the QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) was used according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, with minor modifications. The dry swab specimen from each patient was swirled for 15 s in 400 μl of lysis buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0; 2 mM EDTA; 1.2% Triton). Fifty units of mutanolysin (25 U/μl) (Sigma, Bornem, Belgium) were added and the samples were incubated for 30 min at 37°C. After the addition of 20 μl Proteinase K (20 mg/ml) and 200 μl AL buffer (Qiagen), samples were incubated for 30 min at 56°C. Next, 200 μl of ethanol was added and DNA was purified by adding the lysate to the Qiagen columns as described by the manufacturer.