These findings are consistent with earlier work carried out by ot

These findings are consistent with earlier work carried out by other researchers. Lima et al. [12]. found that individuals Tacrolimus on boosted PI-based regimens were less likely to develop resistance than those on NNRTI-based regimens (AOR 0.42; 95% CI 0.28–0.62) and Riddler et al. [13] found that those on efavirenz-based regimens were more prone to the development of drug resistance mutations than those on lopinavir/ritonavir-based therapies (9 vs. 6%, respectively).

The two comparison drug classes were equally efficacious, as evidenced by proportions of participants who achieved virological suppression (plasma viral load <50 copies/mL) in the first year of therapy (66% for the NNRTI group and 67% for the boosted PI group). Such a similarity in virological response and other clinical outcomes has been documented in other studies [25,26]. This rate of response occurred despite lower adherence INNO-406 order in

the NNRTI group. This kind of response to NNRTI was also demonstrated by Nachenga et al., who found that moderate levels of adherence to these drugs often led to viral suppression among patients [27]. These results may also suggest that, despite adequate virological response, patients still remain at a greater risk of developing resistance to NNRTIs. The generalization of these findings to RLSs, where NNRTI-based ART is primarily used for first-line treatment, may be limited by the fact that this study was carried out in a developed country where most of the social demographic features are different from those in developing countries. Furthermore, most participants in this cohort had HIV-1 subtype B, which accounts for only 10% of HIV infections world-wide, and recent evidence suggests that different HIV genetic variants have different biological properties, including susceptibility and response to antiretroviral Pregnenolone drugs [28]. In addition, the way in which ART is managed in the face of drug resistance is very different in BC from

RLSs. However, we believe that concerns regarding NNRTI-induced resistance mutations require greater study in RLSs. The potential for the development of mutations is probably even greater in these settings, where individuals may have prolonged periods of uncontrolled viraemia prior to switching the class of their third drug. Our results suggest that evaluating the strategy of NNRTI- versus boosted PI-based HAART in RLSs should be a main priority. This should be coupled with documentation of the impact of these mutations on subsequent virological suppression and clinical outcomes among patients who are failing ART in RLSs. Advocacy targeted at reduction in prices for boosted PIs and licensing of generic products can help to increase the availability of these drugs in RLSs. The authors would like to thank the participants in the BC HIV/AIDS DTP and the nurses, physicians, social workers and volunteers who support them.

Microplusin completely altered the respiratory profile of C neof

Microplusin completely altered the respiratory profile of C. neoformans. The basal oxygen consumption in MP-treated cells was approximately 40% lower BMN 673 clinical trial than that in non-MP treated cells. In treated fungi, AA or KCN did not further disturb the rate of oxygen consumption, while SHAM fully impaired respiration, which implies that the classical electron transport pathway was either damaged

or absent and that respiration of C. neoformans is entirely driven by the alternative pathway. As laccase is a copper-dependent oxidase responsible for melanization (Zhu & Williamson, 2004) in C. neoformans, we investigated whether the copper-chelating properties of microplusin might have a negative effect on this process. Microplusin inhibited melanization of the strains H99 and B3501 at concentrations ≥3.12 μM (Fig. 4a). When we supplemented a culture of C. neoformans strain LGK-974 molecular weight B3501 with 2.5 μM of CuCl2.6H2O, we observed that the presence of this metal caused a twofold reduction

in the antimelanization activity of microplusin (Fig. 4b). Similar results were obtained with C. neoformans strain H99 (data not shown). Moreover, we observed that microplusin reduced the laccase activity of C. neoformans strain H99 by almost 50% (Fig. 4c). In parallel, we evaluated whether microplusin could reduce l-dopa autopolymerization in a manner similar to glyphosate, a compound whose antimelanization activity in C. neoformans has been described (Nosanchuk et al.,

2001). Microplusin did not inhibit the autopolymerization of l-dopa and even Phosphoprotein phosphatase increased this process at concentrations ≥6.25 μM (Fig. 4d). Several enzymes are involved in the formation of the polysaccharide capsule in C. neoformans (reviewed in Zaragoza et al., 2009) and microplusin might affect this process by copper depletion, as copper is a co-factor for some of these enzymes. Our results revealed that microplusin impeded capsule enlargement of C. neoformans (strain T1444) in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 5a). We also observed that 25 μM of microplusin significantly inhibited the capsular enlargement of H99 and B3501 (Fig. 5b and c). Our main hypothesis was that microplusin could negatively affect C. neoformans by copper depletion, which would be consistent with the importance of copper homeostasis for this fungus (Davis-Kaplan et al., 1998; Cox et al., 2003; Zhu et al., 2003; Waterman et al., 2007; Jiang et al., 2009) and the copper-chelating property of microplusin at a MP : copper II molar ratio of 1 : 1 (Silva et al., 2009). We have shown that microplusin at concentrations ≥1.56 μM significantly affected the growth of C. neoformans, similar to the activity of the peptide against M. luteus (Silva et al., 2009). Moreover, the anticryptococcal effect was considerably reversed when 2.5 μM of copper was added.

Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of genes

Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of genes involved in the production of EPS I and EPS II in biofilms of Rm1021 and its mucR mutant. Expression of expE2

or exoY gene in biofilms grown in RDM medium (0.015 M sucrose, 12.5 mM phosphate), and RDM supplemented with 0.3 M sucrose or 25 mM phosphate was analyzed as described in M&M. The expE2 gene encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in the synthesis of EPS II. The exoY gene find more encodes a galactosyltransferase responsible for incorporation of the first galactose into the intermediate lipid in EPS I biosynthesis. Introduction of a mutation in the MucR regulator in Rm1021 led to increased transcription of the expE2 gene, relative to the wild type. Transcription of expE2 in biofilms Torin 1 mouse formed by the mucR mutant was enhanced by addition of 0.3 M sucrose to culture medium, but was reduced by a high phosphate concentration (Fig. 5). This is consistent with the findings that increased phosphate availability in planktonic bacteria blocks EPS II synthesis (Zhan et al., 1991; Mendrygal & González, 2000), and thereby reduces expression of the genes responsible for EPS II production. Because expE2 is actively transcribed in biofilms of Rm1021 mucR (a strain that produces HMW EPS II) grown in RDM medium, and biofilm formation in Rm1021 mucR

is similar to that in the wild type (present study, and Rinaudi & González, 2009), the above finding confirms that the HMW fraction of EPS II produced by the mucR mutant is not involved in biofilm formation. exoY expression in biofilms of the mucR mutant was less than that in Rm1021 (Fig. 5). This result is consistent with previous observations that MucR promotes EPS I synthesis in planktonic bacteria (Bertram-Drogatz et al., 1998). On the other hand, exoY expression was not activated by 25 mM phosphate (Fig. 5), suggesting that higher concentrations of phosphate are needed for induction of EPS I production. Mendrygal & González (2000) reported that S. meliloti achieves the maximal production of EPS I at phosphate concentrations higher than those used in the present study. In conclusion, MTMR9 our findings suggest that in vitro polyvinylchloride attachment

by Rm1021 does not depend on exopolysaccharide synthesis under our experimental conditions. In contrast, Fujishige et al. (2006) found that succinoglycan (EPS I) is involved in biofilm development. This apparent discrepancy may be explained by the fact that sucrose concentration in RDM medium for S. meliloti growth was 2% in the Fujishige study, but only 0.5% in the present study. High levels of sucrose in culture medium have been reported to cause increased exopolysaccharide synthesis in other microorganisms (van Geel-Schutten et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2003; Gross & Rudolph, 2008), probably as a result of facilitated carbon uptake. Under our assay conditions, mucR gene expression and regulation of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis do not appear to be crucial for biofilm formation in S.

The T cervina LiP genomic gene tclipG was successfully cloned us

The T. cervina LiP genomic gene tclipG was successfully cloned using the primers tclipg-S and tclipg-A designed from 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of the tclip sequence. tclipG (GenBank accession no. AB237774) contains a 2047-bp translated region ending with a TAA termination codon, and contains 17 introns and 18 exons (Fig. S2). All splicing junction sequences of introns strictly adhere to the GT-AG rule. Lariat consensus sequences (5′-NNHTNAY-3′) were also found in all intronic sequences. The exons exhibited a high

G+C content (59.6%), while introns had a much lower G+C content (42.6%). selleck inhibitor Although the G+C content is lower than those of other LiP genes (Gold & Alic, 1993), it is consistent with that of a recently reported VP gene from Bjerkandera (Moreira et al., 2005). The lengths of introns were almost constant (about 50 bp), while the lengths of exons were much more diverse (5–240 bp). Short exons encoding <10 amino acids (named micro-exons) have also been found in cytochrome P450 genes from P. chrysosporium and are considered to be a specific feature of fungal P450 genes and to be related to the diversity of these genes (Doddapaneni et al., 2005). The schematic representations of 15 fungal peroxidase genes are shown in Fig. 4. RG7420 The T. cervina LiP intron/exon structure is relatively

similar to that of Coprinopsis cinereus peroxidase (CIP), which does not show ligninolytic activity, and is rather different from those of other ligninolytic peroxidases. To further clarify the evolutionary attributes of T. cervina LiP, we constructed a phylogenetic tree with 15 fungal peroxidases Janus kinase (JAK) that have been

characterized enzymatically (Fig. 5). LiP, VP, and manganese peroxidases form their own clusters based on fungal species and catalytic types. However, T. cervina LiP was not classified into any of these clusters, even though T. cervina LiP is a LiP-type catalyst. These results suggested that T. cervina LiP is evolutionarily distant from LiP and VP, despite the fact that T. cervina LiP is functionally a LiP-type peroxidase. We identified the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding T. cervina LiP and characterized the T. cervina LiP molecule. Comparison of LiP sequences revealed that the T. cervina LiP sequence lacks the tryptophan corresponding to Trp171 of P. chrysosporium LiP, but contains a unique Tyr181. Structural analysis using a homology model provided evidence that Tyr181 plays a role in the electron transfer part of the T. cervina LiP catalytic mechanism and is probably the substrate-oxidation site, although further structural and kinetic studies are required to confirm this. Evolutionary analyses indicated that T. cervina LiP does not share the same origin as LiP, suggesting that T. cervina LiP has acquired LiP-type catalytic properties via convergent evolution. Thus, we concluded that T. cervina LiP could be a novel fungal peroxidase with a new LiP-catalytic mechanism including Tyr181. Fig. S1.

9 and 173%, respectively), hepatitis B (329 and 186%, respecti

9 and 17.3%, respectively), hepatitis B (32.9 and 18.6%, respectively), and typhoid fever (33.7 and 20.7%, respectively), three common well-described diseases in travelers Tacrolimus purchase to developing countries (Table 3). Yet a third of respondents (33.0%) perceived rabies to be high risk at their destination. With regard to vaccinations, only half (50.7%) of the respondents thought that vaccines provided sufficient protection

and very few (13.6%) believed that vaccines were safe (Table 4). Some were concerned about vaccine side effects (12.9%) and the cost of vaccines (17.2%). Table 5 outlines the vaccines received by respondents for their recent trip or previously. Apart from immunizations against influenza and tuberculosis, fewer than 10% of people had received any of the vaccines listed. Of those vaccines normally only taken for travel, the highest uptake was for yellow fever vaccine (8.6% of respondents). Few travelers answered they had received immunizations against tetanus, diphtheria, tuberculosis, or polio. Only 7.9% of travelers

carried vaccination records, nearly half of which were International Certificates from the World Health Organization. It has been indicated PI3K Inhibitor Library screening that protection against infectious disease is suboptimal among Japanese travelers. Japanese participants at international gatherings (eg, international aid activities or disaster relief operations) have themselves become aware that members from other industrialized countries

are better protected against infectious disease risks when immunization uptake and use of malaria chemoprophylaxis have been compared. A Nepalese study showed that while 90% of non-Japanese travelers to that country had been vaccinated against both hepatitis A and typhoid fever, only 5% of the Japanese group had been vaccinated against either of the diseases.7 A recently published study by our research group revealed low use of malaria chemoprophylaxis and poor adherence to other malaria prevention measures among Japanese travelers.5 The current Aldol condensation study, modeled on the airport studies, was conducted to especially define the uptake of vaccines among Japanese travelers, and in the event of poor uptake of vaccines, to identify reasons for this. Compared with travelers from Europe and South Africa, very few Japanese travelers sought health information from travel medicine specialists (35.3,1 25,3 and 2.0%, respectively). Few travel clinics exist in Japan and this could be the main reason for such a low proportion of travelers accessing specialist advice. Given the increased numbers of Japanese travelers already taking overseas trips, information on the need for specialist travel health services should be targeted at physicians, hospital and clinic managers and the provision of such facilities should be encouraged.

Less than half of patients knew how to use GTN correctly and most

Less than half of patients knew how to use GTN correctly and most waited too long after CP onset before calling 999 which put them at risk of extra myocardial damage. Educating patients about the GTN – 10-minute rule and targeting

advice at more male patients and those with stable disease could reduce waiting time. GTN is prescribed to prevent or relieve CP among patients with Quizartinib price established coronary heart disease (CHD). It is also a useful prompt for patients to call 999 if pain persists despite GTN administration within certain timeframe. This reduces the amount myocardial tissue damage if CP was due to myocardial infarction (MI). It also reduces unnecessary admissions due to angina. The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends the use of a time frame of 10 minutes.1 This service

development project explored GTN use and the impact of knowing the 10-minute rule on calling for help during an episode of chest pain. A questionnaire was designed to explore GTN medicines-taking behaviour. We examined: how long the patient waited before calling for help after the onset of CP, use of GTN at that episode, normal use of GTN in managing their angina, and knowledge of the GTN rule. We piloted the questionnaire on PLX-4720 order 3 patients on the acute cardiology ward. Consecutive patients presenting to cardiology wards were interviewed based on three inclusion criteria: patient had established CHD, was admitted to hospital with CP and had a GTN prescription before admission. All patients who were approached were happy to participate. The Trust web-based Cepharanthine clinical information management database (EPRO) was used to obtain the patient’s final diagnosis. Appropriate comparative statics were used (Chi-square test, Mann–Whitney and independent samples t-test) Thirty-five patients (27 male

and 8 females) participated. 63% used GTN prior to admission. The average time from onset of symptoms to calling 999 (S-C time) was 116 min (Range 0 to 1440 min). Only 43% of all patients were aware of the GTN rule. Of the 20 patients who were not aware of the rule, 80% said that a healthcare professional (HCP) advised them in the past on GTN use. The most common reason for not using GTN was avoiding side effects. More patients who knew the GTN rule used GTN (p > 0.05), as were those with a previous CP admission (p = 0.001) and those who used GTN at a prior admission (p <0.001). Patients who do not usually need to use their GTN (stable) were less likely to use it during an acute episode of CP (p < 0.001). The mean S-C time was lower among patients who knew the GTN rule compared to those who did not (31 min vs. 183 min respectively, p > 0.05). Women waited less than men, but were less likely to use GTN.

Many of these patients with lower CD4 cell counts had experienced

Many of these patients with lower CD4 cell counts had experienced prior AIDS-defining events because of late diagnosis of HIV infection [34], and one of them was even receiving acute therapy for toxoplasma encephalitis at the time of the influenza A H1N1 diagnosis. Although some HIV-positive patients

were profoundly immune-suppressed because LDK378 purchase of recent late presentation or incomplete CD4 cell recovery [35–38], we did not find that influenza A H1N1 caused illness preferentially in these patients; nor did these patients show more severe infection. Active smoking and former/current injecting drug use, but not the degree of immunosuppression, as indicated by CD4 cell counts, were risk factors for pneumonia in HIV-positive patients with influenza A H1N1 infection. Injecting drug use [39,40] and tobacco smoking [41] are widely recognized risk factors for bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. Of note, three (60%) of the five HIV-positive patients with confirmed influenza A H1N1 infection presenting with pneumonia

had concomitant infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae detected. We found that a longer time from the onset of symptoms to hospital admission was independently associated with a more severe presentation, such as pneumonia, in this group of patients as a whole. A later diagnosis may lead to a delay in the initiation of specific anti-influenza selleck products therapy. Investigators from Mexico City reported that, in a series of severely immune-suppressed

HIV-infected adults who were receiving care for underlying opportunistic respiratory infections, including Pneumocystis pneumonia and tuberculosis, a concomitant diagnosis of influenza A H1N1 infection was not initially suspected [42]. Of 27 HIV-positive patients with influenza A H1N1 infection seen during the initial months of the Mexico City epidemic, 14 required hospitalization and six died. In addition, there are anecdotal reports 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase of HIV-infected patients with severe or fatal influenza A H1N1 infection [43,44]. These cases indicate that influenza A H1N1 infection can be severe in already severely ill HIV-positive patients presenting with concomitant opportunistic infections; in these patients, the missed diagnosis of influenza H1N1 and the subsequent delay in the provision of specific anti-influenza therapy may be fatal. However, our study and others [45,46] suggest that HIV-positive adults are generally no more likely to experience severe complications of H1N1 influenza virus infection than adults not infected with HIV. Similar to seasonal influenza [47], we confirmed that influenza A H1N1 infection did not adversely affect surrogate markers such as CD4 and CD8 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA in plasma or HIV disease progression. Our study had several limitations. HIV-negative controls were assumed to be HIV-uninfected, but we did not confirm this.

The intA element and the vrl are found in almost all virulent str

The intA element and the vrl are found in almost all virulent strains (Rood et al., 1996; Cheetham et al., 2006) selleck inhibitor and are absent from the majority of benign strains. The intA, intB and intD elements integrate into a tRNA-ser gene immediately downstream from pnpA. The pnpA product, polynucleotide

phosphorylase (PNPase), has 3′ to 5′ exoribonuclease activity and is involved in mRNA decay initiated by endoribonucleases (Deutscher & Li, 2001). In Salmonella enterica, PNPase is a global regulator of virulence (Clements et al., 2002) that negatively regulates the expression of genes from the pathogenicity islands SPI-1 and SPI-2 (Ygberg et al., 2006). By contrast, in Yersinia spp., the PNPase S1 domain is important for the optimal functioning of the type III secretion system and a mutant lacking the S1 domain was found to be less virulent than the wild-type strain (Rosenzweig et al., 2007). We have proposed that these integrated elements modulate the expression of pnpA, thereby

altering the activity of PnpA, which acts as a global repressor of virulence (Whittle et al., 1999). To investigate the hypothesis that pnpA encodes a virulence regulator, we created C-terminal deletions in PNPase in several benign and virulent strains, and determined the effect on extracellular protease thermostability and twitching motility, two characteristics associated with virulence in D. nodosus. This deletion increased this website the twitching motility of benign strains, consistent with the hypothesis that PNPase acts as a virulence repressor in these D. nodosus strains. Methods for the growth of D. nodosus, preparation of genomic DNA, cloning and analysis of DNA, Southern blotting, DNA sequencing and DNA sequence analysis, together with the source of D. nodosus strains, have been reported previously (Katz et al., Cobimetinib nmr 1994; Bloomfield et al., 1997; Whittle et al., 1999). Transformation of D. nodosus used the method described by Kennan et al. (1998). Tetracycline (1 μg mL−1)

or kanamycin (10 μg mL−1) was used to select transformants. The sequence of the D. nodosus pnpA gene was extracted from the D. nodosus genome sequence (GenBank accession no. CP000513) and analysed using NCBI-ORF finder. Comparison of pnpA sequences of D. nodosus, Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae (GenBank accession nos. ZP_00924446 and ZP_00755444) showed that the predicted D. nodosus PnpA was very similar, consisting of 693 amino acids with five conserved domains (Fig. 1). The construction of plasmids pCF5 and pCF7 is described in Fig. 1, and the primers are shown in Table 1. These plasmids are unable to replicate in D. nodosus, but homologous recombination at the pnpA locus may insert part or all of the plasmid into the D. nodosus chromosome. A double crossover event at pnpA would interrupt the pnpA coding region by introducing the tetM gene after nt 891 (pCF7) or nt 1718 (pCF5) as shown in Fig. 1.

oxysporum f sp melonis Although the mutants produced all three

oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Although the mutants produced all three kinds of asexual spores with normal morphology, they formed markedly fewer microconidia and macroconidia

than the wild type. The mutants appeared to have a defect in the development of the conidiogenesis cells, conidiophores and phialides, required for the formation of microconidia and macroconidia. In contrast, chlamydospore formation was dramatically Metabolism inhibitor promoted in the mutants. The growth rates of the mutants on media were slightly reduced, indicating that FVS1 is also involved in, but not essential for, vegetative growth. We also observed that mutation of FVS1 caused defects in conidial germination and virulence, suggesting that the Fvs1 has pleiotropic functions in F. oxysporum. “
“The pili of Geobacter

sulfurreducens are of interest because of the apparent importance of the type IV pili in extracellular electron transfer. A strain of G. sulfurreducens, designated strain MA, produced many more pili than the previously studied DL-1 strain even though genome resequencing indicated that the MA and DL-1 genome sequences were identical. Filaments that looked similar to type IV pili in transmission electron micrographs were abundant even after the gene encoding PilA, the structural pilin protein, was deleted. The results of proteinase K treatment indicated that the filaments were proteinaceous. The simultaneous deletion of several genes encoding homologues of type II pseudopilins was required before the filaments Ceritinib datasheet were significantly depleted. The pilA-deficient MA strain attached to glass as well as the wild-type

2-hydroxyphytanoyl-CoA lyase MA did, but strains in which three or four pseudopilin genes were deleted in addition to pilA had impaired attachment capabilities. These results demonstrate that there are several proteins that can yield pilin-like filaments in G. sulfurreducens and that some means other than microscopic observation is required before the composition of filaments can be unambiguously specified. The type IV pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens are of interest because of their proposed role as conduits for extracellular electron transfer to insoluble electron acceptors such as Fe(III) oxides (Reguera et al., 2005) and electrodes (Reguera et al., 2006; Nevin et al., 2009). Fe(III) oxides are the most abundant natural electron acceptors for Geobacter species in a diversity of submerged soils, aquatic sediments, and the subsurface, where these organisms play an important role in the natural cycles of carbon and metals as well as the bioremediation of organic and metal contaminants (Lovley, 1991; Lovley et al., 2004). Extracellular electron transfer to electrodes offers a novel strategy for harvesting electricity from organic wastes and renewable biomass (Lovley, 2006, 2008) as well as environmental restoration (Zhang et al., 2010). The most intensively studied strain of G. sulfurreducens is strain DL-1.

, 2012a) Similarly, in this model we showed that stimulation of

, 2012a). Similarly, in this model we showed that stimulation of the BF increases reliability of neurons in cortex (Fig. 11F). In addition to the GABAergic projections from selleck screening library the BF to the TRN, it has been shown that there exist topographic top-down projections to the TRN from the PFC (Zikopoulos & Barbas, 2007; McAlonan et al., 2008). These projections may act as an attentional

filter, enhancing important information at the expense of irrelevant information before this information even gets to the cortex. Given this circuitry, we were able to show that top-down attentional signals can also lead to an increase in reliability of a single receptive field via projections to the TRN (Fig. 11D). Several computational models have been recently developed that show how neuromodulation can effect cortical processing. The SMART model (Synchronous Matching Adaptive Resonance Theory) developed by Grossberg & Versace (2008) is a spiking model that included a detailed cortical and subcortical (thalamic) circuit design as well as synaptic plasticity and cholinergic neuromodulation. Deco & Thiele (2011) also developed a model demonstrating how cholinergic activity affects the interaction between top-down attentional input and bottom-up sensory information in a cortical

area. Finally, a model of the cholinergic and noradrenergic systems was developed that demonstrated how these systems track expected and unexpected uncertainty in the environment, respectively, and

affect several cortical targets in order to optimise behavior (Avery Talazoparib mw et al., 2012b). The present model differed from those mentioned above in several important ways. First, it showed how non-cholinergic neurons (GABAergic) in the BF could influence subcortical structures (TRN). The three papers above, by contrast, concentrated exclusively on cholinergic neurons in the BF and their influence on the cortex. Second, our model presented a mechanism showing how the BF can enhance both bottom-up sensory input Urocanase and top-down attention by incorporating local and global modes of action by the BF. Thiele and Deco, on the other hand, were interested in modeling cholinergic influences on top-down attention and Avery et al. were interested in modeling the cholinergic enhancement of bottom-up sensory input. It would be interesting to combine the level of detail of our model and the SMART model with the wide range of cholinergic actions that were incorporated into Deco & Thiele (2011) and Avery et al. (2012b). This study was supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) subcontract 801888-BS, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via Department of the Interior (DOI) contract number D10PC20021, and NSF award number IIS-0910710.