, 2012) This pattern of increased prefrontal activity is often c

, 2012). This pattern of increased prefrontal activity is often coupled with decreased activity in the amygdala during the reappraisal of aversive or threatening stimuli (Delgado et al., 2008 and Ochsner et al., 2002). Collectively, this work has led to a provisional model of cognitive emotion regulation in which the dlPFC—consistent with its broader role in executive function—facilitates the online maintenance and manipulation of information needed for reappraisal to take place, while activity in the amygdala Selleckchem Cabozantinib diminishes as the emotional significance of regulated stimuli dampen. The inhibitory nature of this PFC-amygdala relationship

is thought to be mediated by the vmPFC (Delgado et al., 2008 and Ochsner et al., 2012) suggesting a mechanism through which dlPFC activity could modulate amygdala activity during cognitive regulation (Hartley and Phelps, 2009, Ochsner and Gross, 2007 and Schiller and Delgado, AC220 molecular weight 2010). Cognitive emotion regulation relies on a number of higher-level executive functions including intact working memory,

used to maintain representations of relevant information during emotion regulation; response inhibition, which can facilitate the inhibition of automatic responses to threatening cues; and cognitive flexibility, which enables one to adopt different strategies to foster more adaptive responses (Hofmann Electron transport chain et al., 2012). However, emerging work across species suggests that these processes—and the prefrontal brain regions on which they depend—are highly sensitive to the detrimental effects of acute stress. Specifically, these impairments are thought to arise from excessive levels of stress hormones, which have been shown in animals to disrupt neuronal activity (i.e., alter firing rates) and lead to a broad range of cognitive impairments (Arnsten and Goldman-Rakic, 1998, Arnsten, 2009 and Murphy et al., 1996). The PFC relies on a delicate balance of catecholamines such as noradrenaline and dopamine, which each exert an inverted U-shaped influence on lateral

PFC physiology and function in which optimal levels facilitate neuronal firing patters and PFC-dependent task performance, while supraoptimal levels—such as those that may be reached during or after stress exposure—lead to impairments. Research in humans is consistent with this: brief exposure to stress has been shown to impair executive functions including working memory capacity (Duncko et al., 2009, Elzinga and Roelofs, 2005, Luethi et al., 2009, Roozendaal et al., 2004 and Schoofs et al., 2009), cognitive flexibility (Alexander et al., 2007 and Plessow et al., 2011), and goal-directed behavior (Otto et al., 2013), and leads to metabolic reduction in areas selective to emotion regulation, including the vmPFC (Kern et al., 2008) and the dlPFC (Qin et al., 2009).

Further investigation of the neural mechanisms of mGlu5 receptor

Further investigation of the neural mechanisms of mGlu5 receptor antagonists and comparisons of the mechanisms with those of ketamine may warrant the clinical efficacy of mGlu5 receptor antagonists for the treatment of depression and anxiety

disorders. “
“Chronotherapy is a pharmacologic approach whereby a drug is given at a time that varies according to physiologic needs. Our previous study using stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) showed that blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of valsartan [an angiotensin-II Selleckchem Galunisertib receptor blocker (ARB)] was longer after dosing at an inactive period than after dosing at an active period and, consequently, the survival period of the animals was longer after dosing at an inactive period (1). However, such effects based on the time of dosing were not observed for another ARB, olmesartan in this animal study. Duration of BP-lowering effect in SHR-SP and prolongation of their survival period after dosing CP-868596 molecular weight olmesartan at an active period were similar to those after dosing the drug at an inactive period (1). These animal data led us to speculate that the chronotherapeutic effects

of valsartan were different from those of olmesartan in hypertensive patients. There are precedents for chronotherapy in hypertension in clinical practice. For example, Hermida et al. reported that, in untreated hypertensive patients with a non-dipper BP pattern, a dipper BP pattern was obtained in 24% and 75% of patients after dosing of valsartan in the morning and evening, respectively (2). MRIP Recent advances in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) have demonstrated that a higher night-time BP and a non-dipper BP pattern are good predictors of cardiovascular events (3) and (4) and progression of renal disease (5) and (6). Cardiovascular

morbidity and mortality are also reported to elevate in hypertensive patients with a non-dipper BP pattern even under antihypertensive drugs (7). These data suggest that it is important for changing a non-dipper to dipper BP pattern in hypertensive patients. Previous studies showed that switching dosing-time of antihypertensive drugs for morning to evening in patients with a non-dipper BP pattern during morning treatment caused more BP reduction at night-time and increased a number of dipper BP pattern (8), (9) and (10). Valsartan is one of ARBs, which are frequently prescribed for the treatment of hypertension and improve the prognosis of patients. However, a non-dipper BP pattern is detected in half (46∼58%) of hypertensive patients after dosing of valsartan in the morning (11) and (12), and therefore, a chronotherapeutic approach might provide a benefit for these patients.

Control volunteers (n = 6) were recruited to undergo malaria chal

Control volunteers (n = 6) were recruited to undergo malaria challenge without vaccination to confirm the infective efficacy of the sporozoite challenge. Vaccine follow-up visits for groups 1–7 were on days 2, 7 and 28 following each vaccination with additional visits on day 90 (groups 1–5) and day 150 after first vaccination (groups 6 and 7). In addition, all challengees were seen regularly

during the three weeks following challenge (see sporozoite challenge below) and then 35 and 150 days Torin 1 chemical structure following challenge. Blood was collected regularly for safety assessments and immunogenicity. FP9-PP and MVA-PP were manufactured according to Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) regulations by Impfstoffwerk Dessau-Tornau (IDT, Roßlau, Germany). The polyprotein vaccine insert (‘L3SEPTL’) has been fully described

before [4]. It contains six pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens linked together in a single protein (from N to C terminus): liver stage antigen 3 (LSA3) [12], sporozoite threonine and asparagine FK228 order rich protein (STARP) [13], exported protein-1 (Exp1) [14], Pfs16 [15], thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) [16] and liver stage antigen-1 (LSA1) [17]. All except possibly Pfs16 are pre-erythrocytic antigens; LSA3, Exp1 and STARP are also expressed by blood-stage parasites and Pfs16 is also a sexual-stage antigen [4]. Vaccines were stored at the trial site at −80 °C and thawed shortly before administration. Each dose was given intradermally into the skin overlying the deltoid muscle of the upper arm. Doses

were divided equally between both arms. Vaccine sites were temporarily covered with an absorbent dressing which was removed when the vaccine sites were reassessed approximately 30 min later. Volunteers were asked to complete study diary cards for the first seven days after vaccination, beginning with the evening of the vaccination day. These recorded local reactions (pain, redness, swelling, itching, warmth and scaling) and systemic symptoms (oral temperature, feverishness, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea or vomiting, lethargy, headache and malaise). Temperature was measured with an oral digital thermometer (Servoprax GmbH) supplied by the investigators and redness and swelling were recorded as maximal diameters (ensuring else the measurement passed through the puncture site). On each clinic attendance the investigators independently collected the same measurements. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at each clinic visit in response to direct questioning, self-reporting on volunteer diary cards and examination of the vaccine site at each attendance by the investigators. Severity scales used for grading are shown in Online Table A. AEs were judged as either unrelated or possibly, probably or definitely related to vaccination by the investigator, taking into account the symptoms and time since vaccination. All AEs were followed until resolution where possible.

For determination of engraftment of human CD3+ CD8+ T cells in NR

For determination of engraftment of human CD3+ CD8+ T cells in NRG mice and their anti-pp65 reactivity, peripheral blood samples were treated with erythrocyte lysis buffer (0.83% ammonium chloride/20mMHepes, pH 7.2) for 1 min, washed with PBS and stained with fluoro-conjugated tetramers and antibodies; PE-conjugated pp65-reactive tetramers HLA-A*0201 (NLVPMVATV) and HLA-B*0702 (TPRVTGGGAM)

(Beckman Coulter), APC-conjugated anti-human CD3 and FITC-conjugated anti-human CD8 were incubated with cells for 15 min at room temperature followed by erythrocyte lysis buffer incubation (Becton Dickinson). The BKM120 cell line FACS acquisition was performed in a FACS Calibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson) and the analysis was performed PFT�� mouse using CellQuest software. For functional T cell assay, spleen cells were harvested

and stained with APC-conjugated anti-human CD3 for 30 min in the dark. After washing off unbound antibodies, human CD3+ T cells were sorted from splenocytes with a FACSAria IIu apparatus (Becton Dickinson) and further analyzed with ELISPOT assay. 10,000 CD3+ T cells were seeded on IFN-γ antibody-coated 96 wells plate, restimulated overnight with a pool of pp65 peptides or CEF peptides and the plates were further developed as described above. Viability of iDCs in vivo was determined at different time points with in vivo bio-luminescence imaging analyses. NRG mice were subcutaneously injected at hind flank with 5 × 105 SmyleDCs or SmartDCs, marked with firefly luciferase after co-transduction however with LV-fLUC. Mice were anesthetized

and intraperitoneally injected with aqueous solution of D-Luciferin (150 mg/kg) 5 min before imaging. The imaging was performed on day 7, 14, 30 and 90 days after iDC injection using a CCD camera (IVIS, Caliper Life Sciences, Mainz, Germany). Quantified bioluminescence consisted of averaged photon radiance on the surface of the animal and was expressed as photons/sec/cm2/sr (sr = steradian). Parametric (t test) statistical analysis was used for determining statistical significance. All tests were two-sided, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Data was analyzed with GraphPad Prism 5 software (San Diego, CA, USA). We constructed bicistronic self-inactivating lentiviral vector backbones co-expressing human GM-CSF/IFN-α (LV-G2α) or GM-CSF/IL-4 (LV-G24) containing 2A elements interspacing the transgenes (Fig. S1a). Through a ribosomal skipping mechanism, a peptidic bond is missing between the 2A glycine and 2B proline sites, resulting in synthesis of two individual proteins [24] and [22]. Using routine production methods [25], both vectors could be consistently packaged as integration-competent lentiviral vectors (IC-LVs) in 293T cells at high titers (Fig. S1b). Packaging of ID-LVs in 293T cells was performed with a construct expressing the HIV gag/pol mutated at the integrase gene (D64V).

There appears to be no

There appears to be no Selleckchem Hydroxychloroquine trend towards increased numbers of SNPs or decreased conservation when comparing omps that are transcribed in either ticks or cattle [33]. Development of vaccines against anaplasmosis has received considerable attention over the last 50 years and has resulted in several marketed live and inactivated whole-organism vaccines [28]. None are currently available in the U.S. because of varying efficacy against heterologous strains and/or side-effects such as isoerythrolysis due to contaminating erythrocyte proteins in the vaccines. This has stimulated the search for improved vaccines and also attempts to understand the reasons for

the breaks in vaccine protection against heterologous strains [29], [30] and [31]. The reason for breaks in protection appear to be due to a sophisticated system for antigenic variation, whereby the expressed MSP2 and MSP3 outer membrane proteins continually change in sequence [32]. This is caused by segmental gene conversion of genomic expression sites for MSP2 and MSP3 by genomic

pseudogenes [10]. The repertoire of pseudogenes determines the ability of an incoming strain to superinfect a persistently infected carrier animal [13]. We show here that the pseudogene repertoire is extremely diverse for both MSP2 and MSP3 across the U.S., even within A. marginale strains from the same state. No msp2 or msp3 pseudogene was present in all U.S. strains. Therefore, it is unlikely that a vaccine could be developed by trying to include a full repertoire of potential MSP2/MSP3

variants in a vaccine. also However, Onalespib supplier other members of pfam01617 (to which both msp2 and msp3 belong) encode conserved OMPs and are expressed in A. marginale [33] and, therefore, still remain viable vaccine candidates. Two other vaccine strategies have also been proposed recently. The first [16] relies on the protection afforded by the less virulent strain A. marginale subspecies centrale. This strain has been extensively used in the field in Australia, South Africa, Argentina, Uruguay, Israel, Zimbabwe and Malawi. Recent research has found proteins with immunogenic epitopes shared between marginale and centrale, although the overall protein sequence identities were less than 90% [16], and these have been proposed for inclusion in a subunit vaccine. Although A. marginale subsp. centrale undoubtedly provides some protection against A. marginale strains [35], controlled trials have shown low efficacy of this vaccine against heterologous isolates from South America and Africa [36], [37], [38] and [39], and infection by A. marginale subspecies centrale does not prevent subsequent superinfection by A. marginale [40]. These data have stimulated the search for less virulent strains of A. marginale to potentially replace the A. marginale subspecies centrale vaccine, and such strains have been identified in Australia and Mexico [41] and [42].

2A), with additional types (68, 73)[41], [42] and [43] being reco

2A), with additional types (68, 73)[41], [42] and [43] being recognised as ‘possibly’ cancer-causing (category 2 in Fig. 2A). Several other HPV types also belong to the high-risk clade based on evolutionary similarity to the known cancer-causing types [44] and [45] (shaded pink in Fig. 2A), although RO4929097 chemical structure so far, the epidemiological data confirming this have not been obtained. Recent studies also suggest that variant lineages may differ in risk of persistence and association with high-grade disease. Together, these viruses cause approximately half a million cases of

cervical cancer per year worldwide, with approximately half of these being fatal (530,000 cases per year with 275,000 deaths [WHO/ICO Information Centre on Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer; http://www.who.int/hpvcentre/en/]). Importantly, these viruses are also associated with cancers at other sites, including the penis in men, the vagina and vulva in women and, in both genders, the anal transformation zone, the tonsils, oropharynx and base of tongue. It appears that deregulation of Rucaparib in vitro viral gene expression may occur to different extents at the different sites of high-risk HPV infection, and that squamo-columnar junctions, such as the cervical transformation zone, are

particularly prone to neoplastic disease. Nevertheless, high-risk HPVs do not cause cancer in the vast majority of the individuals that they infect [3] and [24]. As with all HPV infections, the high-risk types are maintained in the general population because of productive infections rather than inadvertent cancers. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), where infectious particles are produced, are generally flat and inconspicuous, Megestrol Acetate and in most cases these will regress spontaneously within 18 months [4], [46] and [47]. For reasons that we do not yet clearly understand,

the high-risk HPV types have evolved the ability to persist, often for many years, and to drive cell proliferation in the basal and parabasal cell layers at some sites of infection [48] and [49]. This is not a prerequisite for virus production, and does not happen to any extent in lesions caused by low-risk types. High-grade lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions; HSIL) are abortive infections in which normal patterns of early virus gene expression are perturbed [29]. In particular, it is thought that an elevation in the level of E6 and E7 is directly related to the increasing severity of neoplasia [50], and that the deregulated expression of these genes is directly responsible for the accumulation of genetic errors in the infected cell and the eventual integration of viral episomes into the host cell chromosome [51], [52] and [53], which is seen in many cervical cancers [53], [54], [55], [56] and [57].

These adjustments have three goals: to support the head and body

These adjustments have three goals: to support the head and body against gravity and other external Navitoclax manufacturer forces, to maintain the centre of mass aligned and over the base of support, and to stabilise parts of the body while other parts are moved. Balance, therefore forms the foundation of all voluntary motor skills (Massion & Woollacott 1996) and is a real problem when muscles are paralysed or weak. As these muscles control hip, knee, and ankle joints, these individuals need to learn to balance using muscles of the upper body. In order to enable patients to regain functional skills, the rehabilitation therapist sets goals for

the patient and arranges the environment in which the action takes place. However, it is the patient who must organize a movement that matches the environment and produces the desired outcome. Using Gentile’s taxonomy, reaching sideways to touch or pick up an object on the floor (eg, Fig 1, top left, Harvey at al 2011) and sitting up again, gives the patient

the ‘idea of the movement’ (Gentile 2000). They get an idea of how far they can move laterally and still return to upright sitting without losing balance by testing the limits of stability and expanding these limits to achieve their objective. If the movement is not practised in the context of an everyday activity, and if it is not made challenging and therefore difficult (but not impossible), it becomes meaningless, and boring – ie, producing the movement is abstract rather than concrete. Functional tasks have a concrete goal, eg, picking Ion Channel Ligand Library cell assay up the soap from the floor when showering. Some of the subjects found the ‘exercises boring and repetitious’. Exercises can be boring and repetitive unless we are training to go skiing, run a marathon, or cycle in a charity race when Rebamipide we have concrete goals and motivation is high and we really push ourselves. So one wonders, was the training program sufficiently challenging and goal directed? Did the methodology allow sufficient challenge for the participants to learn how to adapt to environmental demands, pay attention to critical

features, and actively engage in practice. Acquiring skill does not only mean to repeat and consolidate but also to invent and progress (Whiting 1980); practice is a particular type of repetition without repetition (Bernstein 1967). Did they practise moving at different speeds, were they encouraged to push themselves to their ‘limits’? Did they have the chance to make mistakes – making errors is part of learning. Interestingly, it seems that the results of this study support the principle of specificity of training. The study has also opened up a most interesting area of investigation, and we are sure the article will stimulate considerable interest as it has for us. “
“We thank Professors Shepherd and Carr for their letter and interest in our paper (Harvey et al 2011). We largely agree with their insightful comments and interpretation of the literature.

3 Although the most favorable outcomes have been reported with pa

3 Although the most favorable outcomes have been reported with patients who undergo a radical nephrectomy and lymph node dissection before the development of metastasis, successful and reliable

treatment regimens are lacking.4 For the patients who undergo radical nephrectomy, the challenge then lies in follow-up. A unique surveillance protocol has yet to be developed, although many agree that these patients should be categorized as high risk.2 and 3 Clinicians should be aware of this rare variant see more and various presentations to ensure appropriate patient management and surveillance. A 63-year-old woman was referred to us for a right renal pelvic mass detected on ultrasound during a gross hematuria and flank pain evaluation. Urine cytology was negative for malignancy, and computed tomography (CT) showed selleck screening library high-grade obstruction of the right kidney secondary to a 3.5-cm infiltrative lesion involving the proximal collecting system with infiltration into the superior renal pole parenchyma. The patient also had diffuse retroperitoneal and pelvic lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, which were attributed to her chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) currently in remission on the basis of comparison with

previous imaging. In addition to CLL, past medical history included Moyamoya disease, transient ischemic attacks, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, fibromyalgia, seizure disorder, asthma, and hypothyroidism Calpain due to thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. She remained highly functional despite her medical comorbidities. Chest CT revealed no evidence of metastasis, and the patient was counseled on the need for ureteroscopic biopsy for tissue diagnosis. Cystoscopy showed no abnormal findings. Retrograde ureteropyelogram identified a large filling defect within the right renal pelvis extending all the way to the mid ureter. Flexible ureteroscopy revealed a

large, elongated, and pale fleshy-appearing mass that did not appear to be consistent with urothelial carcinoma, but rather resembling a necrotic fibroepithelial polyp. The non-necrotic parts of tumor were biopsied despite extensive clot surrounding this mass which made visualization extremely challenging. Two large fragments were sent for permanent pathologic analysis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the tumor cells were partially PAX8(+), CD10(+), CK7(−), p63(−), GATA3(−), and MiTF(−) with strong immunoreactivity for TFE3, excluding urothelial carcinoma. Considering the aggressive nature of Xp11 TRCC, the decision was made with the patient and family to promptly undergo a right laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and regional lymphadenectomy, which were performed without complications. Surgical pathology revealed pT3aN1Mx, Xp11.2-associated clear cell RCC, with Fuhrman nuclear grade 4 and negative margins (Fig. 1).


“Quantitative selleck chemicals sensory testing (QST) is a collection of individual tests designed to assess the somatosensory system, particularly of patients with neuropathic pain or suspected

neurologic disease (Rolke et al 2006b, Shy et al 2003). Pressure algometry, one of the individual QST tests, has previously been discussed in Clinimetrics ( Ylinen 2007); this article focuses on the thermal component of the QST protocol (tQST), which requires the use of a Thermal Sensory Analyser a (TSA) or an Modular Sensory Analyser b (MSA) ( Rolke et al 2006a). The tQST protocol is used to detect cold and warm thresholds, paradoxical heat sensations, and cold and heat pain thresholds (Rolke et al 2006a, Rolke et al 2006b). The most common method for threshold determination is the ‘method of limits’. This involves the patient indicating as soon as he or she detects either a hot or cold stimulus as the strength selleck of the signal gradually increases. Alternatively, depending on the particular test, the patient may indicate when the stimulus is no longer detected as its strength is gradually decreased (Rolke et al 2006a, Shy et al 2003). Clinimetrics: The tQST protocol described by Rolke and colleagues comprises a series of tests

primarily intended to assist with the diagnosis of pain mechanisms, Rebamipide for example central sensitisation ( Rolke et al 2006b). Although the individual component tests of the protocol have been previously validated, further studies are needed to evaluate the validity of the complete QST battery ( Rolke et al 2006b). There is also a lack of data on the validity of the tQST protocol to diagnose specific neurological conditions, the absence of which has probably limited the acceptance of tQST in the clinical management of painful conditions ( Backonja et al 2009, Shy et al 2003).

tQST has been found to demonstrate good reproducibility, performed with the method of limits at different test intervals (Heldestad et al 2010). For example coefficients of repeatability (the minimal detectable change between measurements, expressed in C°) between testing on Days 1, 2, and 7 ranged from 0.62 to 1.35 for both warm and cold thresholds. However, as values ranged from 1.64 to 3.14 when heat and cold pain thresholds preceded threshold testing, Heldestad et al (2010) have stressed the importance of conducting thermal threshold testing prior to pain thresholds so that reproducibility is optimised. Significant correlations in tQST results have been found over two days in a sample of chronic pain sufferers and healthy subjects (range r = 0.41 to 0.62) (Agostinho et al 2009).

PW assisted with the study fieldwork, participant follow-up and d

PW assisted with the study fieldwork, participant follow-up and data management, with contributions from GA and SNL. KEB designed and coordinated laboratory testing, which was undertaken by CPM. AJvH advised on the use of study data for cost-effectiveness modelling. All investigators contributed to and approved the final version of the paper. We would like to thank all the families and schools who participated in this study; Teresa Gibbs, Yojna Handoo-Das, Rashmi

Malkani, and Deborah Cohen for administration of the school mailings selleck inhibitor and data entry; Lynne Joslin, Norah Ashwood, Diane Webb, Anne Maher, and Wendy Nedoma, the HPA vaccine research nurses for their assistance in the field work for the study. “
“Since the publication of this paper, the authors have discovered an error in the section ‘Vaccine introduction in low- and middle-income countries’, which they would like to correct. The statement “Among girls attending school, high first dose coverage was achieved (93%) [37]” should read “Among girls attending school, high three-dose coverage was achieved (93%) [37]”.

“Leishmania lipophosphoglycan (LPG), one of the principal molecules of the parasite, modulates the immune response. LPG is a ligand for TLR2 in NK cells regulating their IFN-γ and TNF-α production [1]. In mast cells and macrophages LPG modulates TLR2 and protein kinase-alpha (PKC-α), respectively [2] and [3]. CD4+ lymphocytes Ketanserin define Leishmania infections, where a Th-1 aids parasite control and Th-2 response favors disease progression in mouse models [4]. A major role in this website the defense against Leishmania is played by CD8+ cells, both by IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity [5], [6] and [7]. Activation of CD8+ and CD4+ lymphocytes is regulated by PD-1, an inhibition receptor whose two ligands are PD-L1 (B7-H1) and PD-L2 (B7-DC) [8] and [9]. The recognition of PD-1 by either ligand leads to a functional exhaustion of CD8+ lymphocytes, characterized by reduced proliferation, the absence of cytokine production and a failure

to exert cytotoxicity [10] and [11]. Yet some evidence also suggests that these molecules modulate CD8+ cells during Leishmania mexicana infections. A reduction of CD8+ lymphocytes has been observed in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL), infected with L. mexicana. These cells showed enhanced expression of PD-1 and were hampered in their effectors mechanisms, being non-responsive in their cytokine production and showing limited cytotoxicity, when confronted with autologous Leishmania-infected macrophages [12] and [13]. In a model of experimental chronic visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani, CD8+ cells were found to show phenotypic markers of functional exhaustion [14]. PD-L2 is a ligand for PD-1 displayed on dendritic cells and macrophages, both of which are host cells for Leishmania [9].