10 (0 88-1 39) for rs2424913, and OR = 1 02 (0 81-1 28) for rs156

10 (0.88-1.39) for rs2424913, and OR = 1.02 (0.81-1.28) for rs1569686). Also the genotype distributions of both polymorphisms were

closely similar between groups, and no significant effect on disease age at onset was observed. Overall, present results do not support a major role for rs2424913 or rs1569686 in LOAD pathogenesis.”
“Obesity increases the risk of morbidity and mortality LY3039478 in vitro and reduces quality of life independent of age, sex or ethnicity. Leading health authorities recommend weight loss as a primary treatment strategy for obesity reduction-weight loss goals range from 5% to 10% of initial body weight. intentional weight loss in most adults is associated with a reduction Fer-1 order in many of the health complications of obesity. Nonetheless, emerging evidence supports the notion that a lifestyle-modification program characterized by an increase in physical activity and a balanced diet can reduce obesity and the risk of obesity-related comorbid conditions despite minimal or no weight loss. The benefits of such an approach include appreciable reductions in abdominal obesity, visceral fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, and increases in both skeletal muscle mass and cardiorespiratory fitness. individuals with obesity face a serious challenge if they are to attain even modest weight loss in today’s obesogenic environment. Clinicians could encourage positive

lifestyle changes in their patients by counseling them that obesity and its associated health risks can

be reduced in response to an increase in physical activity with or without weight loss.”
“PURPOSE: To assess the prophylactic effect of preoperative application of topical diclofenac on postoperative pain control in patients having photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).

SETTING: Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

DESIGN: Randomized masked clinical trial.

METHODS: In this paired-eye study, patients having bilateral PRK received 1 drop of diclofenac 0.1% in 1 eye and 1 drop of placebo in the fellow eye 2 hours before PRK. Postoperatively, both arms of the trial (both eyes of each patient) received topical diclofenac every 6 hours for 2 days. One day and 2 MLN2238 days postoperatively, patients were asked to rate the perceived pain in each eye using an 11-point verbal numerical rating scale. A trained examiner noted the eye-specific responses.

RESULTS: All 70 patients (140 eyes) completed the study and were included in the statistical analysis. Twenty-four hours after PRK, patients reported pain scores that were clinically and statistically significantly lower in the eyes pretreated with diclofenac than in the fellow eyes (0.97 versus 2.09) (P=.018). Pain scores at 2 days did not differ significantly (P=.877).

CONCLUSION: Administration of a single drop of topical diclofenac 0.

Third, podocyte injury leads to a vicious cycle of hemodynamic ma

Third, podocyte injury leads to a vicious cycle of hemodynamic maladjustment and endothelial and podocyte injuries. All three of these mechanisms induce glomerular endothelial injury and microalbuminuria, which reflects renal microvascular disease.”
“Autologous CD117+ progenitor cells (PC) have LY2090314 research buy been successfully utilized in myocardial infarction and ischemic injury, potentially through the replacement/repair of damaged vascular endothelium. To date, such cells have not been used to enhance solid organ transplant outcome. In this study, we

determined whether autologous bone marrow-derived CD117+PC could benefit cardiac allograft survival, possibly by replacing donor vascular cells. Autologous, positively selected CD117+PC were administered posttransplantation and allografts were assessed for acute rejection. Although significant selleck chemical generation of recipient vascular cell chimerism was not observed, transferred PC disseminated both to the allograft and to peripheral lymphoid tissues and facilitated a significant, dose-dependent prolongation of allograft survival. While CD117+PC dramatically inhibited alloreactive T cell proliferation in vitro, this property did not differ from nonprotective CD117- bone marrow populations. In vivo,

CD117+ PC did not significantly inhibit T cell alloreactivity or increase peripheral regulatory T cell numbers. Thus, rather than inhibiting adaptive immunity to the allograft, CD117+ PC may play a cytoprotective role in prolonging graft survival. Importantly, autologous CD117+PC appear to be distinct from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) previously used to prolong allograft survival. As such, autologous CD117+PC represent a novel cellular therapy for promoting allograft survival.”
“Four native Australian fruits, Illawarra

Plum (Podocarpus elatus Endl., Podocarpaceae), Kakadu Plum (Terminalia ferdinandiana Exell, Combretaceae), Muntries (Kunzea pomifera F. Muell., Myrtaceae) and Native Currant (Acrotriche depressa R.Br., Epacridaceae) were examined for antioxidant and cellular protective activities. Each fruit showed significantly greater antioxidant activity than a blueberry (Vaccinum sp., cv. Biloxi) HKI-272 cell line reference with Kakadu Plum exhibiting 13.3-fold and 2.4-fold activity of blueberry in the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC-H) assays, respectively. A lyophilised polyphenolic-rich extract of Kakadu Plum exhibited the greatest cellular antioxidant activity (CAA assay) of 71.5 mu mol QE/g, and was followed by Illawarra Plum, Native Currant and Muntries (46.3, 20.0 and 14.4 mu mol QE/g, respectively). Polyphenolic-rich extracts of Kakadu Plum and Muntries (but not Illawarra Plum and Native Currant) extracts efficiently protected RAW 264.7 cells against hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.

Methods Two identical female twins presented with a developmenta

Methods. Two identical female twins presented with a developmental spondylolisthesis. Pelvic parameters, lumbar lordosis Compound C and grade of spondylolisthesis were calculated on a lateral standing spine radiograph. MRI is performed to confirm a high dysplastic developmental spondylolisthesis. Blood sample of these four individuals were analyzed for the presence of a CDMP-1 mutation, a cartilage-specifi c member of the TGF-beta superfamily of secreted signaling molecules that plays a key role

in chondrogenesis, growth, and patterning of the developing vertebrate skeleton.

Results. PI, SS, PT, LL, and SI are significantly greater in all of these patients in comparison with the general population. Spinal MRI confirms a high dysplastic developmental spondylolisthesis in both twins. Mutation analysis selleck of the two coding exons of CDMP-1 did not reveal any mutation in all four individuals.

Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a high dysplastic developmental spondylolisthesis

in identical twins. The presence of a high dysplastic developmental spondylolisthesis in two identical twins shows the convergence in etiology of different factors such as genetics, maturation, critical age, female sex, high pelvic incidence. Although we cannot confirm that CDMP-1 mutation plays a key role in the etiology of spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis, neither can we rule out that CDMP-1 problems may be an etiology for at least a subpopulation of patients. However, the presence of a developmental spondylolisthesis in two sets of identical twins still suggests a genetic susceptibility to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.”
“Background: Roux-en-Y

gastric bypass (RYGB) restricts food intake, and when the Roux limb is elongated to 150 cm, the procedure is believed to induce malabsorption.

Objective: Our objective was to measure total reduction in intestinal absorption of combustible energy after RYGB and the extent to which this was due to restriction of food intake LY2157299 order or malabsorption of ingested macronutrients.

Design: Long-limb RYGB was performed in 9 severely obese patients. Dietary intake and intestinal absorption of fat, protein, carbohydrate, and combustible energy were measured before and at 2 intervals after bypass. By using coefficients of absorption to measure absorptive function, equations were developed to calculate the daily gram and kilocalorie quantities of ingested macronutrients that were not absorbed because of malabsorption or restricted food intake.

Results: Coefficients of fat absorption were 92 +/- 1.3% before bypass, 72 +/- 5.5% 5 mo after bypass, and 68 +/- 8.7% 14 mo after bypass. There were no statistically significant effects of RYGB on protein or carbohydrate absorption coefficients, although protein coefficients decreased substantially in some patients.

6%) Development of ARF was not associated with survival (OR 0 73

6%). Development of ARF was not associated with survival (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.26, 2.05)

after adjusting for initial rhythm or illness severity.

Conclusions: More than one-third Z-DEVD-FMK purchase of patients resuscitated from OHCA developed evidence of renal dysfunction, and 19% of patients meeting criteria for AKI or ARF. In this study, development of renal failure was not independently associated with survival. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between preoperative hearing and early postoperative hearing results in patients undergoing primary aural atresia repair.

Study Design: Retrospective review of 125 patients.

Setting: Academic tertiary referral center.

Patients: One hundred twenty-five

patients (5-67 yr old) undergoing 133 primary aural atresia surgeries were included.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between preoperative and postoperative selleck chemical (mean, 7.5 wk; range, 3-40 wk after surgery) hearing outcome measures including 3-tone pure-tone average (PTA), speech reception threshold (SRT), speech discrimination scores (SDS), air-bone gap (ABG), change in ABG (Delta ABG), and between preoperative SRT and Jahrsdoerfer score.

Results: Preoperative PTA, SRT, SDS, and ABG correlated strongly with their respective postoperative values (correlation coefficients rho of 0.356 [p < 0.01], 0.199 [p < 0.05], 0.480 [p < 0.01], and 0.223 [p < 0.05], respectively). Preoperative PTA (0.407; p < 0.01), SRT (0.348; p < 0.01), SDS (-0.247; p < 0.01), and ABG (0.514; p < 0.01) also were correlated with Delta ABG. When postoperative results were dichotomized to either normal (SRT, <30dB HL) or abnormal (SRT, >= 30dB HL), preoperative SRT was found to be a positive predictor of normal postoperative hearing (p = 0.05). Probability of normal postoperative hearing was 66% when preoperative SRT was 50 dB HL or lower and 40% when greater than 60 dB HL. Preoperative hearing (SRT) also trended toward a correlation with Jahrsdoerfer

score (-0.168 [p = 0.058]).

Conclusion: Among patients undergoing primary atresia repair, better preoperative hearing strongly predicts better postoperative hearing and correlates with ear anatomy. Preoperative hearing see more status should be factored when counseling atresia patients on hearing rehabilitation options.”
“Mucoadhesive microspheres of sitagliptin (SITCM), a new anti-diabetic drug was prepared with carbopol 934 P using Buchi B-90 nano spray drier and optimized to analyse the key effects and relations of three factors on formulation of SITCM were studied. The appearance of the microspheres was found to be shriveled to nearly spherical, with a narrow size of 2-8 mu m. The drug loading and percentage yield was found to be 73 +/- 0.2% and 92 +/- 0.3%, respectively. In vitro release indicated Korsmeyer-Peppas pattern mucoadhesion of SITCM-8 was found to be 7.8 +/- 0.3 h.

This measurement is insensitive to the thermal contact


This measurement is insensitive to the thermal contact

resistance, as no temperature drops occur at the ends of the nanotube. It is also insensitive to errors in the calibration of the G band temperature coefficient. The optical absorption is also obtained from these results and is on the order of 10(-5). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3627236]“
“Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare multisystemic autoimmune disease with variable clinical manifestations, and disease onset before 16 years of age. Patients younger than 5 years are rarely affected and the age of check details onset may contribute to the course of disease in terms of clinical presentation, organ involvement, and serological findings. Here, we report two exemplary early-onset SLE patients, a 28-month-old patient with WHO class IIB kidney disease, arthritis, and a typical antibody constellation and an 11-month-old infant that presented with microcytic anemia, leukocytosis, arthritis,

fasciitis, fatty liver disease, protein losing enteropathy, edema, and minimal change glomerulonephritis. Epidemiologic and clinical features of early-onset SLE compared to other forms of SLE are given and differential diagnoses and C59 purchase treatment options are discussed.”
“Antigenemia is commonly detected in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea, but the prevalence of viremia has not been clearly defined. We examined antigenemia in plasma and RNAemia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of children with acute diarrhea by EIA, RT-PCR, and Southern hybridization, using primers and a probe specific to rotavirus NSP4 gene. We detected the presence of rotavirus antigen in 33.3% and almost full-length NSP4 gene in 70.8% of the acute-phase plasma and PBMC, respectively. In contrast, antigenemia selleck kinase inhibitor and RNAemia were detected in 0% and 4.2% of the convalescent-phase plasma and PBMC, respectively, which were similar to antigenemia (0%) and RNAemia (7.7%) in healthy controls. We demonstrated

an increase in the proportions of activated myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and activated plasmacytoid DC (pDC) in acute-phase PBMC of patients when compared to those in convalescent phase of patients and in PBMC of healthy controls. The activation of mDC peaked on days 24 after illness onset, and the activation of acute-phase pDC appeared to correlate with levels of antigenemia. High prevalence of NSP4 gene in acute-phase PBMC indicates possible rotavirus replication in white blood cells, and extraintestinal spread and the activation of DC may have implications for the prevention of rotavirus disease in children.”
“We tested the hypothesis that supplemental polyethylene glycol (PEG), a polymer that neutralizes the effects of tannins, would increase intake and preference of cattle for fresh-cut sericea lespedeza (SL; Lespedeza cuneata), a legume with high concentrations of condensed tannins. Sixteen crossbred steers (initial BW of 249 +/- 6.

05) There were no grafts or instrumentation-related stabilizatio

05). There were no grafts or instrumentation-related stabilization problems. In subjects with tuberculous spondylitis with involvements this website at two or more levels accompanied by medium and severe kyphosis, decompression, fusion and instrumentation by simultaneous successive posterior-anterior-posterior surgery is an effective and safe management method for effective kyphosis correction with high fusion rates.”
“OBJECTIVE: Acute bronchiolitis is a

leading cause of infant hospitalization and is most commonly caused by respiratory syncytial virus. Etiological tests are not required for its diagnosis, but the influence of viral screening on the therapeutic approach for acute bronchiolitis remains unclear.

METHODS: A historical cohort was performed to assess the impact of viral screening on drug prescriptions. The study included infants up to one year of age who were hospitalized for bronchiolitis. Virus screening was performed using immunofluorescence assays in nasopharyngeal aspirates. The clinical data were obtained from the patients’ medical records. Therapeutic changes were considered to be associated with viral screening when made within 24 hours of the release of

the results.

RESULTS: The frequency of prescriptions for beta agonists, corticosteroids Belnacasan nmr and antibiotics was high at the time of admission and was similar among the 230 patients. The diagnosis of pneumonia and otitis was associated with the introduction of antibiotics but did not influence antibiotics maintenance after the results of the virus screening were obtained. Changes in the prescriptions CX-6258 purchase were more frequent for the respiratory syncytial virus patients compared to

patients who had negative viral screening results (p=0.004), especially the discontinuation of antibiotics (p<0.001). The identification of respiratory syncytial virus was associated with the suspension of antibiotics (p=0.003), even after adjusting for confounding variables (p=0.004); however, it did not influence the suspension of beta-agonists or corticosteroids.

CONCLUSION: The identification of respiratory syncytial virus in infants with bronchiolitis was independently associated with the discontinuation of antibiotics during hospitalization.”
“Background: Measuring long-term disability and functional outcomes after major trauma is not standardized across trauma registries. An ideal measure would be responsive to change but not have significant ceiling effects. The aim of this study was to compare the responsiveness of the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), GOS-Extended (GOSE), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and modified FIM in major trauma patients, with and without significant head injuries.

Methods: Patients admitted to two adult Level I trauma centers in Victoria, Australia, who survived to discharge from hospital, were aged 15 years to 80 years with a blunt mechanism of injury, and had an estimated Injury Severity Score >15 on admission, were recruited for this prospective study.

9% and 22% versus 2 7%; p < 0 001 and p < 0 001, respective

9% and 22% versus 2.7%; p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Congenital sepsis proven by positive blood culture

was also more likely to occur (3% versus 0%; p = 0.027). Presence of funisitis further increased the likelihood of the above abnormal laboratory results.

Conclusions. selleck chemical Histological chorioamnionitis increases the likelihood of having markers of infection, bacterial colonization, and congenital sepsis. Only 3% of histological chorioamnionitis resulted in congenital sepsis confirmed by blood culture.”
“BACKGROUND: Inactivated sludge systems, sludge settling ability is considered a critical step in effluent quality and determinant of solid-liquid separation processes. However, few studies have reported the influence of saline wastewater an activated sludge. This work aims the evaluation of settling ability properties of microbial aggregates

find more in a sequencing batch reactor treating saline wastewaters of up to 60 g L(-1) NaCl, by image analysis procedures.

RESULTS: It was found that the sludge volume index (SVI) decreased with salt content up to 20 g L(-1), remaining somewhat stable above this value. Furthermore, it was found that between the first salt concentration (5 g L(-1)) and 20 g L(-1) aggregates suffered a strong deflocculation phenomenon, leading to a heavy loss of aggregated biomass. Regarding SVI prediction ability, a good correlation coefficient of 0.991 between observed and predicted SVI values was attained.

CONCLUSION: From this work the deflocculation of aggregated biomass with salt addition due to pinpoint floc formation, dispersed bacteria growth and protozoa absence could be established. With respect to SVI estimation, and despite the good correlation obtained, caution is advisable given the low number of SVI data points. (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of primary stapes surgery with and without a vein graft in patients with otosclerosis and to

determine the differences in the postoperative gain in air-bone gap (ABG) and air-conduction (AC).

Study Design: Selleck HSP990 A nonrandomized multicenter clinical evaluation.

Setting: Two tertiary referral centers in The Netherlands and France.

Patients: Otosclerosis patients that underwent primary stapedotomy surgery.

Intervention: Primary stapedotomy surgery without a vein graft (n = 939, first center) compared with primary stapedotomy surgery with a vein graft (n = 3691, second center).

Main Outcome Measures: Preoperative and postoperative audiometric results were compared. An analysis of variance was performed to evaluate differences in postoperative ABG and AC gains between surgeries with and without a vein graft, adjusted for potential confounders.

Results: The postoperative ABG was 10 dB or lesser in 72.1% of the patients without a vein graft and in 93.2% of patients with a vein graft.

The precise pathophysiological mechanism by which mefloquine migh

The precise pathophysiological mechanism by which mefloquine might predispose those with such a history to seizure remains unclear.

Presentation of the hypothesis: Studies have demonstrated that mefloquine at doses consistent with chemoprophylaxis accumulates at high levels in brain tissue, which results in altered neuronal calcium homeostasis, altered gap-junction functioning, Smoothened Agonist in vitro and contributes

to neuronal cell death. This paper reviews the scientific evidence associating mefloquine with alterations in neuronal function, and it suggests the novel hypothesis that among those with the prevalent EPM1 mutation, inherited and mefloquine-induced impairments in neuronal physiologic safeguards might increase risk of GABAergic seizure during mefloquine chemoprophylaxis.

Testing and implications of the hypothesis: Consistent with case reports of tonic-clonic seizures occurring during mefloquine chemoprophylaxis among those with family histories of epilepsy, it is proposed here that a new contraindication to mefloquine use be recognized for people

with EPM1 mutation and for those with a personal history of myoclonus or ataxia, or a family history of degenerative neurologic disorder consistent with EPM1. Recommendations and directions for future research are presented.”
“An epoxy resin MK-2206 cell line system based on a triglycidyl p-amino phenol (MY0510) was crosslinked using stoichiometric amounts of 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone. The epoxy was modified with random copolymers, poly-ethersulfone-poly(ether-ethersulfone) (PES:PEES), with either amine or chlorine end groups, at 10 and 20 wt %. The reaction kinetics for both unmodified and modified epoxy systems were studied using differential scanning calorimetry in isothermal and dynamic conditions. The results show that the degree of conversion in thermoplastic-modified epoxies at any reaction time is smaller compared with the unmodified resin. Gel point

(GP) determination was done from rheological measurements. The modified system containing Selleck WH-4-023 20% of the PES:PEES additive showed considerable increase in the GP. The reaction rate shows the characteristic of an autocatalytic reaction where the product acts as catalyst. The activation energy, E(a) calculated from the isothermal reaction depends on the extent of conversion and increases with increasing PES:PEES content. For unmodified epoxy system, the average E(a) is 67.8 +/- 4.1 kJ mol(-1) but for systems modified with 20 wt % of amine and chlorine PES:PEES, the value increased to 74.1 +/- 3.3 and 77.9 +/- 4.4 kJ mol(-1) respectively. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 112:2391-2400, 2009″
“Purpose To assess the construct validity of the CHU9D in an adolescent general population sample.


All cases and controls were community-dwelling e


All cases and controls were community-dwelling elderly older than 60 years in a primary care panel in Olmsted County, MN. Pressure ulcer cases were defined clinically. The controls were age-matched and gender-matched to controls without pressure ulceration. The main exposure variable was 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in both groups. The other exposure variable was the Charlson Comorbidity see more Index used to measure medical comorbidity. The analysis included univariate and conditional logistic regression for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

Results: The average (standard deviation) age of the study participants with a pressure ulcer was 80.46 years (+/-8.67), and the average vitamin D level was 30.92 ng/mL (+/-12.46). In univariate analysis, Silmitasertib chemical structure Vitamin D deficiency (levels, 25 ng/mL) was associated with pressure ulcers (odds ratio: 1.871, P = 0.0154). Comorbidities of the subjects calculated using the Charlson Comorbidity Index were also associated with pressure ulcers (odds ratio: 1.136, P < 0.001). In the final conditional logistical regression model, the association of Vitamin

D and pressure ulcers became nonsignificant after adjustment for comorbid illness.

Conclusion: Medical comorbidities increased the risk of pressure ulceration. Vitamin D deficiency was not an independent risk factor for pressure ulceration, and may be a marker of comorbid illness.”
“Malignant tumors in the oral cavity are relatively rare. About 5% of all malignant growths in the body are localized in the oral cavity. The vast majority

of oral malignancies are primary tumors with squamous cell carcinoma being the most frequent and sarcomas occurring very seldom. Secondary tumors caused by hematogenous spread arising from a tumor localized elsewhere in the body are extremely rare. About 1% of all oral cancers are metastases to the jawbones and the surrounding soft tissues. Metastases to the jaws are mainly caused by malignant tumors of the breast, lung, kidney, bone, and colon. LGX818 purchase They occur in the late state of the disease and are regularly detected by staging examinations including scintigraphy. Even more rare are metastases into odontogenic cysts. Odontogenic cysts include dentigerous cysts, periapical or radicular cysts, and the keratocysts-nowadays declared as keratocystic odontogenic tumor. The incidence of odontogenic cysts is about 10% to 15% of all oral biopsies and therefore general dentists are frequently faced with these types of lesions. The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding metastasis into odontogenic cysts and to further highlight this rare entity with the help of a clinical case. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 582-586)”
“Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis.

We exemplify this model through a robot passively observing an ob

We exemplify this model through a robot passively observing an object to learn its features and movements. During the learning process of observing sensorimotor primitives, i.e., observing a set of trajectories of arm movements and its oriented object features, the pre-symbolic representation is self-organized in the parametric units. These representational units act as bifurcation parameters, guiding the robot to recognize and predict various learned sensorimotor primitives. The pre-symbolic representation also accounts for the learning of sensorimotor primitives in a latent learning context.”

sample DNA amplification was done by using a novel rotary-linear motion polymerase Rapamycin ZD1839 chain reaction (PCR) device. A simple compact disc was used to create the stationary sample chambers which are individually temperature controlled. The PCR was performed by shuttling the samples to different temperature

zones by using a combined rotary-linear movement of the disc. The device was successfully used to amplify up to 12 samples in less than 30 min with a sample volume of 5 mu l. A simple spring loaded heater mechanism was introduced to enable good thermal contact between the samples and the heaters. Each of the heater temperatures are controlled by using a simple proportional-integral-derivative pulse width modulation control system. The results show a good improvement in the amplification rate and duration of the samples. The reagent volume used was reduced to nearly 25% of that used in conventional

method. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org.elibrary.einstein.yu.edu/10.1063/1.3690469]“
“Background: Musculoskeletal injuries of the shoulder in paraplegic patients with long-term survival can result from overuse and/or inappropriate use of wheelchairs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk of pathological changes in the weight-bearing shoulder girdle of paraplegic patients who have been wheelchair-dependent for more than thirty years in comparison with able-bodied volunteers.

Methods: QNZ in vivo One hundred paraplegic patients were matched for sex and age with a group of 100 able-bodied volunteers. Two hundred shoulders from each group were evaluated with use of magnetic resonance imaging. Collected outcome measures included a standardized clinical examination protocol, the Constant score, and a visual analog score for pain intensity.

Results: Shoulder function according to the Constant score was significantly worse in the paraplegic patients than in the able-bodied volunteers. Similarly, the visual analog scale pain scores were significantly worse for the paraplegic patients.