This paper provides experimental evidence that these measures, ev

This paper provides experimental evidence that these measures, even when used in combination, cannot distinguish accurate from inaccurate registrations. To this end, we introduce a “”registration”" algorithm that generates highly inaccurate image transformations, GSK2126458 purchase yet performs extremely well in terms of the surrogate measures. Of the tested criteria, only overlap scores of localized anatomical regions reliably distinguish reasonable from inaccurate registrations, whereas image similarity and tissue overlap do not. We conclude that tissue overlap and image similarity, whether used alone or together, do not provide valid evidence for accurate registrations

and should thus not be reported or accepted as such.”
“Purpose: To compare the dynamics KU-57788 mw of systemic inflammatory indices during laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN) and standard open donor nephrectomy.

Patients and Methods: Participants in this cohort study were 54 adults without a history of

renal surgery and no evidence of urinary tract infection who underwent transperitoneal LN (n = 29) and open donor nephrectomy (n = 25, control group). We recorded demographic characteristics, intraoperative parameters, and changes 24 hours postoperatively in systemic inflammatory and immunologic values (body temperature, concentrations of white blood cell count [WBC], C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin [IL]-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha), and compared the mean changes between groups.

Results: Mean age was older in the LN group (45.6 vs 30.9 years; P < 0.0001), and mean operative time was significantly shorter (83.1 min vs 101.6 min; P = 0.004). Mean postoperative increase in IL-6 and body temperature in LN was significantly less than in control: For IL-6, 15.87 vs 29.09 pg/mL, P = 0.03; for body temperature, LDK378 concentration +0.22 degrees C vs +0.71 degrees C, P = 0.001). Mean postoperative

increases in levels of other inflammatory markers (CRP, TNF-alpha, WBC) did not differ significantly. No statistical correlation was found between operative time and changes in IL-6, CRP, TNF-alpha, WBC, or body temperature.

Conclusion: Based on the smaller increase in serum IL-6 as the most important indicator of surgical stress, the surgical trauma-induced immune dysfunction may be less intense after LN than open surgery. This may explain the smooth convalescence after LN.”
“Objective: The mechanism of persisting obstructive sleep apnea (USA) after adenotonsillectomy is not fully explained. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with residual OSA. The primary outcome measures were metabolic tests and polysomnographic respiratory indices in children with residual disease compared with children who were diagnosed with USA but were untreated. Secondary outcome measures were acid gastroesophageal reflux indices recorded parallel to the sleep study.

The intrusiveness of the symptoms of Meniere’s disease accounted

The intrusiveness of the symptoms of Meniere’s disease accounted for 32% of the variance in depression scores, which were high; illness uncertainty did not account for additional variance. Dizziness handicap

accounted for 31% of the variation in depression. Although the symptoms of Meniere’s disease may not be alleviated by psychological methods, programs that target cognitions in relation to the embarrassment in front of others, PF-00299804 chemical structure and the feeling of being handicapped, may lessen the psychosocial impact of the symptoms of Meniere’s disease, which may reduce some of the depression felt in this group.”
“Different treatments of dentin walls, as laser irradiation, prior to obturation can influence the adhesion ability of endodontic sealers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare in vitro the shear bond strength of four resin-based sealers to dentin treated with citric acid solution or erbium: yttrium, aluminum, garnet (Er:YAG) irradiation. A total of 240 slices with 1.6 mm of thickness were cut using middle third of 84 teeth. Each slice was widened using a #45 taper.06 rotary K3 instrument. The sample was divided

into groups according to dentin pretreatment (15 % citric acid or Er:YAG laser) and sealer used (AH Plus, Acroseal, EndoREZ, or RealSeal). Shear bond strength was measured using a universal materials testing machine. As results, significant differences were found when comparing sealers between all groups (p < 0.05) by Kruskal-Wallis test, regardless of the pretreatment used. Comparing pretreatments, 15 % citric acid solution had better outcomes than Er:YAG laser, with significant differences in all groups, Selleckchem Bafilomycin A1 except for Acroseal groups (p < 0.05). It was concluded that RealSeal and 15 % citric acid solution achieved the best results regarding the sealer and pretreatment used, respectively.”
“Background: Few studies to date have examined the accuracy of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in diagnosing intracranial stenosis. The purpose of this study was to compare CTA to DSA in diagnosing selleck intracranial stenosis and to explore the impact of the addition

of DSA on the management of stroke patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all ischemic stroke or patients with transient ischemic attack who underwent CTA and DSA within 30 days of each other at our institution between January 2008 and July 2011. For each study, 2 blinded observers rated the degree of stenosis of 11 intracranial vessels. Disagreements were adjudicated by a third blinded observer. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristic curves were determined using DSA as the criterion standard. All patient charts were reviewed to determine if the addition of DSA to CTA impacted clinical management. Results: Six hundred twenty-seven arterial segments were reviewed. The sensitivity of CTA to diagnose stenosis >50% was 96.

There was a significantly higher (P < 0 01) percentage of prog

There was a significantly higher (P < 0.01) percentage of progressive motility, viability and acrosomal integrity in two L-cysteine-supplemented groups (group II and group III) compared with the control. There was a biphasic effect of L-cysteine, with the highest percentage of progressive motility, viability and acrosomal integrity in group III. In conclusion, 5 or ACY-241 10 mmol L(-1) was the optimum concentration of L-cysteine to be added to the LEY extender for improving the quality of frozen-thawed boar semen.”
“Supermacroporous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) cryogels containing

urease were prepared via UV irradiation technique and hydrogen peroxide as initiator. Specifically, due to the cryostructuration phenomenon urease molecules were embedded into the dense cryogel walls. Thus, although the enzyme is physically entrapped, the system exhibited remarkable resistance against leaking due to the dense polymer network formed in the cryogel walls. The immobilized urease can catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in a broad temperature range in both batch and flow regime. The interconnected macropores assist for unhindered diffusion of the substrate and reaction products through the gel, thus, paving the way for consecutive reuse at a constant activity, in contrast GPCR Compound Library to the conventional

PNIPAAm hydrogel. Due to the spongy-like morphology PNIPAAm cryogels containing urease can be exploited as highly permeable membrane for direct removal of traces of urea from continuously flowing feed solutions. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 1742-1748, 2011″
“We analyze the unique property of periodic arrays of subwavelength metallic slits to allow extraordinary electromagnetic transmission at multiple frequency bands. The diffraction limit in periodic arrays of subwavelength metallic slits is mitigated by excitation of surface waves which assist efficient coupling of a transverse magnetic-polarized incident electromagnetic wave into the TEM waveguide

modes of the subwavelength slab INCB018424 order waveguides formed by metallic slits. By investigating the geometry dependence of the electromagnetic guided modes supported by periodic arrays of subwavelength metallic slits, we present the design of a periodic array of metallic nanoslits which enables efficient interaction of terahertz and optical waves at nanoscale dimensions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3567909]“
“The structure and physical-mechanical properties of films of interpolymeric complexes (IPCs) based on sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) with urea-formaldehyde oligomers (UFOs) of different structure are studied in this article. It is shown that films of IPC have higher rate of deformative-strength properties and elasticity, minimal rate of solutions’ viscosity with equimolar proportion of components of Na-CMC and UFO.

Recent experimental measurements of the optical properties of sta

Recent experimental measurements of the optical properties of stacked quantum dots have demonstrated that this can be achieved via exploitation of inter-dot strain interactions. In particular, the relatively large aspect ratio (AR) of quantum dots in the optically active layers of such stacks provide a two-fold advantage, both by inducing a red shift of the gap wavelength above 1300 nm, and increasing the TM001-mode, thereby decreasing the anisotropy of the polarization response. However, in large aspect ratio quantum dots (AR > 0.25), the hole confinement is significantly modified

compared with that in lower AR dots-this modified confinement is manifest in the interfacial confinement of holes in the system. Since the contributions to the ground state optical intensity (GSOI) are dominated by lower-lying valence states, we therefore propose that the room temperature 4-Hydroxytamoxifen GSOI be a cumulative sum of optical transitions from multiple valence

states. This then extends previous theoretical studies of flat (low AR) quantum dots, in which contributions arising only from the highest valence state or optical transitions between individual valence states were considered. The interfacial hole distributions also increases in-plane anisotropy in tall (high AR) quantum dots (TE110 not equal TE-110), an effect that has not been previously observed in flat quantum dots. Thus, a directional degree of polarization Nutlin-3 cost (DOP) should be measured VX-770 nmr (or calculated) to fully characterize the polarization response of quantum dot stacks. Previous theoretical and experimental studies have considered only a single value of DOP: either [110] or [-110]. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3657783]“
“The introduction of oral phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) in the late 1990s

and early 2000s revolutionized the field of sexual medicine and PDE5Is are currently first-line monotherapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, a significant proportion of patients with complex ED will be therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I monotherapy. Combination therapy has recently been adopted for more refractory cases of ED, but a critical evaluation of current combination therapies is lacking. A thorough PubMed and Cochrane Library search was conducted focusing on the effectiveness of combination therapies for ED in therapeutic non-responders to PDE5I therapy. Journal articles spanning the time period between January 1990 and December 2010 were reviewed. Criteria included all pertinent review articles, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and retrospective analyses. References from retrieved articles were also manually scanned for additional relevant publications.

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved th

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved this study, and informed

consent was waived because of the retrospective nature of the study. Preoperative MR images in 40 consecutive patients with Bafilomycin A1 Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor locally recurrent rectal cancer scheduled to undergo curative treatment between October 2003 and November 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Four observers with different levels of experience in reading pelvic MR images assessed tumor invasion into the following structures: bladder, uterus or seminal vesicles, vagina or prostate, left and right pelvic walls, and sacrum. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. Surgical and/or histopathologic findings were used as the reference standard. Interobserver agreement was measured by using kappa statistics.

Results: Preoperative MR imaging was accurate for the prediction of tumor invasion into structures with negative predictive values of 93%-100% and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.79-1.00 for all structures and observers. Positive predictive values were 53%-100%. Disease was

overstaged in 11 (observer 1), 22 (observer 2), 10 (observer 3), and nine (observer 4) structures and was understaged in nine (observer ICG-001 cost 3) and two (observer 4) structures. Assessment failures were mainly because of misinterpretation of diffuse fibrosis, especially at the pelvic side walls. Interobserver agreement ranged between 0.64 and 0.99 for experienced observers.

Conclusion: Preoperative MR imaging is accurate for the prediction of absence of tumor invasion into pelvic structures. buy ACY-241 MR imaging may be useful as a preoperative road map for surgical procedure and may thus increase chances of complete resection. Interpretation of diffuse

fibrosis remains difficult. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“The purpose of this study was to compare the usefulness of the nucleic acid amplification (NAA) test against conventional tests under normal laboratory operational conditions. The NAA test was performed on the first sputum specimen of all patients. Liquid media culture, solid media culture, and Ziehl-Neelsen stain for an acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear were performed on three sputum specimens. The results were calculated using the gold standard of either the culture results or the clinical diagnosis. Of the 593 patients tested, 151 (25.5%) were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity of the first specimen only was 64% for the NAA test, 54% for the AFB smear, 77% for BACTEC MGIT 960 culture, 40% for Lowestain-Jensen (LJ) culture, and 25% for 7H11 culture. The sensitivity when using all three specimens increased to 63% for AFB smear, 87% for BACTEC MGIT 960 culture, 51% for LJ culture, and 40% for 7H11 culture. The specificity was 100% for all culture tests, 99% for the AFB smear, and 99.5% for NAA test. The mean turnaround time was 1.

Three of these participants were withdrawn from the rapid infusio

Three of these participants were withdrawn from the rapid infusion study. The other four participants (grade 1 only participants) were re-challenged. The same premedication was used as in the first rapid infusion. On experiencing a grade 1 reaction, promethazine 12.5 mg i.v. was administered and infusion recommenced at 50% of the previous rate upon the resolution of symptoms. Three patients developed a grade 1 adverse event and one patient experienced no adverse reaction. The three patients who did not tolerate the second rapid infusion were withdrawn from this study.

Conclusion: A rituximab infusion over 90-min was safe and feasible see more for participants who seek treatment

at ambulatory cancer centre. The new regimen has

been adopted as a standard practice with better resource utilization.”
“Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of the remodeling technique with that of conventional coil embolization in a Stattic in vitro large multicenter series involving the endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms, the CLARITY study (Clinical and Anatomic Results in the Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms).

Materials and Methods: The institutional review board approved the CLARITY study, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. A total of 768 patients (age range, 19-80 years; mean age 6 standard deviation, 51.0 years +/- 11.1) with 768 ruptured aneurysms were treated with either conventional coil BMS-777607 cell line embolization (608 patients, 79.2%) or the remodeling technique (160 patients, 20.8%). Patient and aneurysm characteristics, the rate of adverse events related to the

treatment or initial intracranial hemorrhage, and patient outcome were compared between treatment groups by using the chi(2), Fisher exact, or Student t test.

Results: The overall rate of treatment-related complications, with or without clinical manifestations, was 17.4% (106 of 608 patients) with coil embolization and 16.9% (27 of 160 patients) with remodeling (P = .999). The difference in the rates of thromboembolic events, intraoperative rupture, and early repeat bleeding between the treatment groups was not statistically significant. The cumulative morbidity and mortality rate related to the treatment in the remodeling group (3.8%, six of 160 patients) was similar to that in the coil embolization group (5.1%, 31 of 608 patients) (P = .678). Likewise, the global cumulative morbidity and mortality rates related to both the treatment and the initial hemorrhage did not differ significantly between groups (16.2% [26 of 160 patients] with remodeling and 19.6% [119 of 608 patients] with coil embolization, P = .366). The rate of adequate aneurysm occlusion, however, was significantly higher in the remodeling group (94.9%, 150 of 158 aneurysms) than in the coil embolization group (88.7%, 534 of 602 aneurysms) (P = .017).

Full rescue of the qless neural phenotype was achieved by dietary

Full rescue of the qless neural phenotype was achieved by dietary supplementation with CoQ4, CoQ9 or CoQ10, indicating that a side chain as short as four isoprenoid units can provide in vivo activity. Together, these findings show that Drosophila qless provides a useful model for studying the neural effects of CoQ deficiency and dietary supplementation.”
“A 69-year-old man presented with

an expanding tissue mass over the medial aspect of his left thigh 6 weeks after a fracture of the distal femur shaft. Imaging studies confirmed a rare traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superficial femoral artery. For the massive hematoma and persistent exsanguinating hemorrhage, Z-IETD-FMK supplier staged interventions were taken. First, the pseudoaneurysm was hemodynamically isolated with an endovascular stent-graft placement. Subsequent surgical exploration and aneurysmectorny

were performed later for the evacuation of the formed hematoma and the relief of the resultant compressive symptoms. Because traumatic pseudoaneurysm can have an insidious onset and delayed presentation, surgeons should consider the possible complication even after initial fracture fixation.”
“We developed molecular markers for cassava based on the microsatellite-amplified fragment length polymorphism (M-AFLP) technique. Twenty primer pairs were developed and used for the analysis of 48 samples of Manihot species, consisting of M. esculenta (33), M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia (3), M. chlorosticta (3), M. carthaginensis (3), M. filamentosa (3), and M. tristis (3). Nine microsatellite loci that were polymorphic among these Sotrastaurin inhibitor Manihot species were identified, giving 32 polymorphic alleles and from two to seven alleles per locus. Unbiased and direct count heterozygosity varied from 0.0233 to 0.7924 and 0.0000 to 0.7083, respectively. There was significant deviation (P < 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at five loci. Genotypic data from the Manihot species were subjected to genetic diversity analysis. We found that M. chlorosticta and M. esculenta ssp

flabellifolia were the closest Selleck LY2090314 populations, while M. filamentosa and M. esculenta ssp flabellifolia were the most divergent. Considering within M. esculenta, the samples from Nigeria and Fiji were the most closely related, while those from Venezuela and of unknown origin were the most divergent. We conclude that the M-AFLP technique is an effective method for generating microsatellite markers that are useful for genetic diversity analysis in Manihot species.”
“The goal of this review is to assess the value of treating versus not treating benign epilepsy (of childhood) with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Among 110 recommendations from 96 articles, two-thirds generally favored and one-third generally did not favor treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).

Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score, Hoehn-Yahr stagin

Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale score, Hoehn-Yahr staging and the Schwab-England activities of daily living scale were used to assess motor abilities find more and activities of daily living. A complex neuropsychological examination with a battery of tests was used to classify patients into a group with dementia (PDD) and a group without dementia (PD). Neuroradiological examination

of MRI scans included visual rating scales for WMH (according to the Wahlund and Erkinjunntti rating scales) and the Scheltens scale for hippocampal atrophy. Blood samples for Hcy, folate, vitamin B12, fibrinogen, lipids, glucose, creatinine, transaminases and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were examined. Results: Among all patients, 57 (29.7%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for dementia. Significantly higher Hcy plasma levels were noted in PD and PDD groups compared to controls (p<0.05) and in PDD when compared to PD (p<0.05). According to multivariate regression click here analysis, WMH (Erkinjuntti scale), high Hcy, low vitamin B12 and folate plasma levels were independent risk factors for PDD. Vascular risk factors did not play any role in the pathogenesis of

PDD and WMH. Conclusions: WMH along with Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 may impact cognition in PD. Therapy with vitamin B12, folate and catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors may play a potential protective role against PDD. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Coenzyme Q plays an integral role in oxygen metabolism and management, and there is a positive correlation between low tissue coenzyme Q concentrations and the progression of many degenerative

diseases. Retinal oxidative damage plays a role in the pathogenesis of many degenerative eye diseases; nevertheless, despite the retina’s high rate of oxygen metabolism, there is little data relating to retinal coenzyme Q concentrations. In this study, we quantified coenzyme Q in the model bovine eye and determined whether it could function as a retinal lipid antioxidant. We found that the Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor neural retina’s ubiquinone concentration exceeded those of the vitreous humor, lens, choroid, and extraocular muscle, but it was lower than those measured in heart, kidney, liver, and brain tissues. Ubiquinol was found to be as effective as vitamin E as a retinal lipid antioxidant. The overall relatively low levels of ubiquinone found in the retina, coupled with the retina’s need for lipid antioxidants and oxidative metabolism, suggests that retinal function might be sensitive to changes in ubiquinone concentrations.”
“Fertility treatment in women aged a (>=)40 year old remains difficult and controversial. All available studies in older women report results of one specific method of ART, i.e. IUI, IVF/ICSI or oocyte donation, and success rates are always published per attempt but never per patient.

For this, bivalve mollusk, Anodonta cygnea, at three sites, with

For this, bivalve mollusk, Anodonta cygnea, at three sites, with mixed agricultural and municipal activities (A), close to a municipal water inlet (F) and the cooling pond of a nuclear power plant (N), were studied in spring, summer, and autumn. The set of parameters included

the characteristics of oxidative stress (activity of catalase (CAT), levels of protein carbonyls (PC)), levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG, respectively), activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LD), cholinesterase (ChE), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the digestive gland, and concentrations of vitellogenin-like proteins (Vtg-LP) in gonads and also morphological indices. Although the discriminant functional analysis confirmed the general

ATPase inhibitor seasonal regularities for studied groups, it allowed to discriminate between sites (P < 0.05). At site A, oxidative stress; high levels of LD, EROD, and GST; and low levels of ChE and condition factor were reflected. This demonstrated the sensitivity of mussels to constant effect of mixed pollution. At site N, oxidative injury was shown that might be explained by the constantly high temperature. At site F, abrupt elevations of Vtg-LP and EROD levels in autumn were probably related to an emergency situation on the nearby dump. So, both chronic and temporal environmental effects were reflected by HIF inhibitor review a set of markers in mollusk. The classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm selected GSH and PC in the digestive gland and Vtg-LP as partitioning criteria for the characterization of mussel

health status. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“It has been suggested that lead (Pb) exposure in early life may increase amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and promote the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease in old age. The current study examined whether the DNA methylation patterns of APP gene in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells changed after Pb acetate exposure. Undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to three doses of Pb acetate (50, 250, and 500 nM) and one control for 2 days or 1 week. The methylation patterns of APP promoter and global DNA methylation were analyzed. The DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression and the level of amyloid beta peptide (A beta) were also investigated. The results showed that the exposure of the three concentrations of Pb acetate could make the APP promoter hypomethylated. The global DNA methylation level and the expression of DNMT1 were changed in the 500 nM group after 2 days exposure and in the 250 and 500 nM group after 7 days exposure. Thus, Pb may exert neurotoxic effects through mechanisms that alter the global and promoter methylation patterns of APP gene. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012.”
“The effects of air pollution on health have been studied worldwide.

In the present perspective, the discussion will focus on migraine

In the present perspective, the discussion will focus on migraine and cluster headache chosen as elective examples of biological and not only clinical conditions, that unveil the bond between pain and necessity. Migraine, cluster headache, and perhaps other SNS-032 solubility dmso primary headaches begin to be depicted in terms of recurrent activation of innate bio-behavioral specific patterns, with a crucial

and highly conserved evolutionarily adaptive significance. The pan-mammalian sickness behavior and the fight or flight response, selectively activated by different kinds of pain, are here proposed as paradigmatic of migraine and cluster headache attacks associated behaviors, allowing to reformulate these forms as the inappropriate recurrent presentation of coordinated allostatic processes, modeled along million of years of natural evolution. In this light, all the multifaceted characteristics of migraine and cluster headache attacks can be reinterpreted as complex and integrated allostatic defensive reactions to an inescapable or to an escapable pain, respectively aimed to the restoration of biologic homeostasis

through a temporary disengagement from active interaction with environment (migraine associated sickness behavior) or, on the contrary, to promote the coordinated biological changes preparatory to emergency and defensive behaviors (cluster headache-related fight or flight response).”
“The structure and physicochemical properties of pulse starches isolated from different cultivars of faba bean (FB), black bean (BB) and pinto bean (PB) were examined. FB starches exhibited numerous cracked granules, whereas the surface of PB and BB starches showed no evidence of cracks or indentations. Apparent amylose, phosphorus and bound lipid TGF-beta assay contents ranged from 25.8 to 33.6%, 0.004 to 0.009% and 0.13 to 0.15%, respectively.

Variations in the above parameters among cultivars of FB and BB were marginal, but significant (P<0.05) among cultivars of PB. All starches exhibited a ‘C’ type X-ray pattern. The amount of B-type unit cells ranged from 20.6 to 25.0% (FB), 15.4 to 17.7% (BB) and 7.9 to 17.3% (PB). Relative crystallinity ranged from 20.3 to 21.9% (FR), 20.4 to 21.3% (BB) and 21.3 to 23.1% (PB). Molecular order near the granule surface followed the order: BB similar to PB > FB. Variations in molecular order among cultivars of FR, BB and PB were marginal. Differences in amylopectin chain length distribution among FR, BB and PB starches and among cultivars were marginal. The extent of interaction of amylopectin double helical associations within the crystalline lamella followed the order: BB similar to PB>FB. Amylose leaching (AML) in the temperature range 60-90 degrees C, gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy of gelatinization followed the order: F B> BB similar to PB, FB>PB>BB, BB similar to PB>FB and BB similar to PB>FB, respectively.