Intrusion detection in user behavior can be divided into two appr

Intrusion detection in user behavior can be divided into two approaches: misuse detection and anomaly detection. Misuse detection systems use sensors to monitor and scan for known misuses, while anomaly detection systems have sensors that monitor and detect deviations from normal behavior. The misuse detection system sensor can detect misuse by a malicious user. However, the sensor would have difficulty in detecting unknown types of misuse because of a lack of information regarding the specific misuse. In an anomaly detection system, the sensor has the potential to detect misuse by evaluating deviations from normal behavior, even if the specific details of the type of misuse are unknown.

However, anomaly detection systems sometimes gives rise to false alarms, which can result in ��the boy who cried wolf�� syndrome.

The objective of anomaly detection is to reduce missed alarms without giving rise to false alarms. This paper focuses on anomaly detection of a masquerader using someone else’s account on a multiuser system, such as a UNIX-like system.Studies on masquerader detection have employed various approaches, including incremental probabilistic action modeling (IPAM) [1], hidden Markov models (HMM) [2,3], the uniqueness approach [4], etc. The uniqueness method outperforms the hybrid multistep Markov method [5], Bayes 1-step Markov method [6], compression method [7], sequence-match method [8], and IPAM method [1] with a false alarm rate between 1% and 5% [7].

These methods have been restricted to systems using a single sensor.

One drawback of the single sensor is that many false alarms arise when a valid user carries out new operations they have never performed Entinostat previously.In this paper, we propose an immunity-based anomaly detection system with multiple sensor agents based on the specificity and diversity of the biological immune system, in which each immune cell has a unique Dacomitinib receptor that has a high affinity for only specific antigens. Similarly, each of our agents has a unique sensor, which reacts strongly to the behavior of a specific user. When a user types a command sequence, all the agents check their own score of the command sequence by their sensor.

On the basis of all the scores, one of the agents determines whether the user is a masquerader or not. That is, our approach makes use of multiple sensors rather than a single sensor, which leads to an improvement in masquerader detection accuracy.In performance evaluation, detection accuracy has been evaluated with no distinction between users internal and external to a LAN. In general, anomaly detection methods use the information of only internal users.

In this system, we advocate the use as the input device of a data

In this system, we advocate the use as the input device of a data glove that is capable of sensing the slightest movement. Although there are already several imported data gloves of the optic fiber sensor type, they are overly complicated and costly for the intended finger language applications. For example, a data glove from various companies like VPL Research Inc., or 5 DT Inc. may cost from US$2,700 to US$895. This fact has motivated the authors�� initial attempt to make a reliable but low cost (under US$150) data glove.As past experience points out, the major problems with most finger systems are two fold. One is system reliability and accuracy; the other is the differences in the movements of each individual patient.

To overcome such problems, besides the data glove, establishing a delicate tiny-movement-discerning software system is indispensable.

2.?The ApproachTo avoid eavesdropping, ancient Chinese businessmen often settled a transaction by performing specific gestures inside spacious sleeves. They called it ��the universe inside the sleeves��, which could be dubbed the earliest figure finger language. We borrow from this idea and Cilengitide use figure gestures as the basic input symbols to develop a communication system for handicapped aphasiacs. Our intelligent communication system involves three key concepts: a data glove to input finger language components, a finger language recognition subsystem to recognize the finger language components, and a virtual keyboard to produce text from the finger language components.

The center concept is finger language components.

We have defined 12 finger language components in terms of proper finger gestures to support the system.2.1. Data Glove as the Input DeviceWe have manufactured a data glove that uses only light-emitting diodes (LED) and photo-detectors (PD) (i.e., without optic fibers, light from LEDs will reach PDs on line of sight) in measuring the bending degrees of fingers, as illustrated in Figure 1a [10]. The developed data glove is coupled with a virtual Carfilzomib keyboard simulated as a predetermined 15 �� 6 matrix keying system, which can display the intended message on a screen.

Specifically, the x and y coordinates on the virtual keyboard are decided by the movements of the index and middle finger, respectively. Once the desired letter is highlighted, the user then bends his thumb to give the confirmation signal to complete a letter selection sequence. The system described above has two drawbacks and this work proposes two corresponding solutions, as explained below.Figure 1.(a) Five sensor da
Routing analysis has been one of the most popular research topics in geospatial-related fields.

estis after 2 and 7 days of DEHP treat ment, suggesting also a de

estis after 2 and 7 days of DEHP treat ment, suggesting also a deregulation of cell adhesion molecules in seminiferous tubules. DEHP decreases the response to external factors, such as the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor or the Epidermal Growth Factor through under expression of neuropilin 2 and sorting nexin 6 respectively. Nrp2 is a mem brane receptor capable of binding VEGF and sema phorins, therefore its under expression may inhibit cell adhesion and migration via the loss of integrins. Snx6 is able to interact with EGF receptor and Trans forming Growth Factor b receptor. Under expression of snx6 and thbs1 may lead to decreased interaction with Latent TGF Binding Protein in the upstream of the TGF b pathway contributing to the repression of the TGF b signaling pathway.

Under expression of TGF b is known to decrease apoptosis in rodent hepatocytes treated with peroxi some proliferators. Organelle transport and cytoskeleton remodelling DEHP also interferes with functions of microtubules. Kif23, which encodes a kinesin protein, was highly over expressed after 5 hrs and 24 hrs of DEHP exposure. Kif23 has been shown Drug_discovery to transport membranous organelles and protein com plexes from cell nucleus to cell periphery in a microtu bule and ATP dependent manner. Doublecortin like kinase is a microtubule associated protein encod ing a Ca2 calmodulin dependent kinase. Its activities on binding and microtubule polymerization facilitate cell motility by remodelling the microtubule cytoskele ton. Over expression of dclk at 24 hrs of DEHP treatment is in line with an increased trend in b tubulin.

Calmoduline like 3 was over expressed after 24 hrs of DEHP exposure. Calmodulin is a cal cium binding protein that translates the Ca2 signal into a wide variety of cellular processes, including the regula tion of cytoskeleton remodelling acting with Caldesmon or with Wnt pathway. Calml3 is a CaM family member protein which increases cell motility by stabiliz ing and increasing myosin 10 for cell migration. Other genes involved in signal transduction pathways and cytoskeleton regulation We measured an over expression level of phosphatidyli nositol 3 kinase r1 using Differential Display and qPCR. Pi3k is a key signalling molecule in the PIP3 signalling transduction pathway and in actin reorganiza tion and cell adhesion and is able to regulate the synthesis of collagen I.

An activation of PI3K is also associated with a phosphorylation dependent activation of Akt which contributes to tumorigenesis and metasta sis. The over expression of pi3kr1 can be related to the under expression of ctnnbip1 which interacts with b catenin. In addition to the function of b catenin in the actin cytoskeleton, its role in the regulation of Akt pathway activation or in Wnt pathway regulation is advanced. This protein forms part of a complex that captures growth and proliferation signals from the cell surface and is then activated to stimulate the expression of genes involved in cell prolifera

reducing tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, drawing our att

reducing tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, drawing our attention to these relatively non to ic cholesterol lowering drugs. The present study demonstrates the potency of pitavastatin relative to other statins. Importantly, our results demon strated that co administration of pitavastatin with low dose chemotherapy, greatly increased the potency of the latter, lowering the IC50 values for irinotecan by 40 to 70 fold, with few adverse effects. E perimentally, we found that statins independently induced autophagy in GBM and that statins may potentiate chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting MDR 1 function. This was consistent with in silico screening results using our virtual tumor cell technology, which suggested that pitavastatin affects cell viability by inducing autophagy.

Cholesterol has a key role in cell membranes, cell me tabolism, cell signaling and has been implicated in tumor development and progression. Therefore, as cholesterol lowering agents, questions about the anti tumor effects of statins have been already posed. Statins decrease cholesterol levels by inhibiting the enzyme HMG CoA reductase in the liver. In addition, mevalonate, and isopren oid intermediates such as geranylgeranylpyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate in the cholesterol synthesis pathway are Carfilzomib also depleted after statin treatment. Another intermediate, dolichol, an essential substrate for protein N glycosylation, is also blocked by statins. Considering that GBMs are highly proliferative taking up large quantities of cholesterol, potentially they may be vulnerable to statin treatment.

However, the mechanism of sensitivity of GBM to statins has not been elucidated. Recent studies have shown that statins may have an anti GBM effect in enograft mouse models, by targeting the low density lipoprotein receptor, inducing apoptosis via ERK AKT pathway. Other data hypothesize that statins may inhibit tumor growth by inducing autophagy via the NF ��B pathway in human colon cancer cell line. Our data obtained in both stable cell lines and primary patient samples clearly demonstrated that pitavastatin induced macro autophagy in GBM cells. Further e periments are now ongoing to investigate the signaling pathway involved in this effect. Importantly, we have shown that pitavastatin potentiated the anti tumor effects of low dose irinotecan, a topoisom erase inhibitor.

Pitavastatin is know to be a substrate of the multi drug resistance protein, MDR 1, which is over e pressed in GBM upon drug treatment and is partly responsible for the resistance of GBM to chemotherapy. Our data indicate that, in combination with irinotecan, pitavastatin suppressed glycosylation of MDR 1, thereby inhibiting its function and allowing irinotecan to accumu late intracellularly. Accumulation of irinotecan is likely responsible for the increased apoptosis in the presence of pitavastatin. The MDR 1 e pression in cancer cells can be a significant obstacle to the success of chemo therapy. Many MDR 1 inhibito

0 cm2) A Ag/AgCl electrode is the reference electrode, and a pla

0 cm2). A Ag/AgCl electrode is the reference electrode, and a platinum electrode is the counter electrode. Electronic pulse signals were provided by an Autolab PGSAT32 instrument (manufacturer, city, state abbrev if US, country) in potential (constant) control mode. The current�Ctime curve of the Pt-doped TiO2NTs preparation is shown in Figure 1. The electrolytes were prepared with pH = 4.4 aqueous H2PtCl6?6H2O (1 g/L) and H3BO3 (20 g/L) at 50 ��C. The deposition time of the sample was set to 90 s to obtain moderately-sized Pt nanoparticles. Linear sweep voltammetry was employed at a current density of 5 mA/cm2 and continuous negative pulse for 10 ms. After each negative pulse, a short positive pulse (current density of 5 mA/cm2, continued for 2 ms) is discharged to the barrier layer capacitance.

Then toff = 100 ms time was used to restore the concentration of metal ions on the deposition surface.Figure 1.Current-time curve for the preparation of Pt-doped TiO2NTs.2.2. Pt-Doped TiO2NTs Sensor ProductionThe TiO2NTs gas sensor is different from traditional gas sensors. TiO2NTs grow directly on the surface of a metal titanium plate and are not coated on a traditional Si substrate or an A12O3 base. Therefore, high-temperature conductive silver glue was applied directly to the Pt-doped TiO2NTs surface to prepare the electrical contacts. The electrodes were closely pasted onto the TiO2NTs. Finally, the wires were connected to measure the surface resistance signal of the sensor. A sketch of the Pt-doped TiO2NTs sensor is shown in Figure 2.Figure 2.Sketch of the Pt-doped TiO2NTs sensor.

2.3. Gas Sensing Test Device and Method for the TiO2NTs SensorFigure 3 presents a schematic of the device utilized to measure the TiO2NTs sensor’s response to the SF6 gas decomposition products. In the experiment, the calibration gases of the SF6 decomposition products were injected through the air intake. The gas flow meter controls and detects the flow rate of the measured gas, and the ceramic heater chip and thermal resistance probe control and measure the surface sensor temperature. The TiO2NTs sensor was then placed in a sealed quartz glass tube. The resistance characteristics of the sensor were determined with an impedance analyzer, and the resistance value of the entire process was recorded. The relative changes in the TiO2NTs sensor’s resistance (i.e.

, sensitivity) was calculated with the formula:R%=(R?R0)/R0��100%where R is the sensor resistance value after injecting the detected gas, and R0 is the stable resistance in N2. The response time of the sensor is the time when the sensor’s resistance reached 90% of the maximum value.Figure 3.Detection Brefeldin_A test device utilized to measure the TiO2NTs sensor’s response to the SF6 decomposition products. (1) Quartz glass tube; (2) thermal resistance probe; (3) carbon NT sensor; (4) ceramic heating slices; (5) vacuum form; (6) vacuum pump; (7) ventilation …

In our previous work [10], an effective method based on minutiae

In our previous work [10], an effective method based on minutiae feature matching was proposed for finger-vein recognition. To further improve performance, a region growth-based feature extraction method [11] is employed to extract the vein patterns from unclear images. For a small database, the two methods can achieve high accuracy by matching these images. Currently, a wide line detector is being investigated for finger-vein feature extraction by Huang et al. [12]. Their experimental results have shown that a wide line detector combined with pattern normalization can obtain the best results among these methods. Meanwhile, a new finger-vein extraction method using the mean curvature [13] is developed to extract the pattern from the images with unclear veins.

As the mean curvature is a function of the location and does not depend on the direction, it achieves better performance than other methods.The vein feature extraction methods described above have shown better performance for finger-vein recognition, however, they have the following limitations: (1) as some of the pattern extraction methods such as maximum curvature [6] and mean curvatures [13] emphasize the pixel curvature, the noise and irregular shading are easily enhanced. Thus, they cannot detect effective vein patterns for authentication; (2) The methods described above only focus on single feature extraction (the shape of veins), rather than multi-feature extraction.

However, it is difficult to extract a robust vein pattern because the captured vein images contain irregular shading and noise, therefore, only by using the shape of vein patterns one cannot achieve robust performance in finger-vein recognition; (3) The matching scores generated from these methods are either global or local, so it is difficult to accommodate the local and global changes at the same time. To solve these problems, a new scheme is proposed herein for finger-vein recognition. The main contributions from this paper can be summarized as follows:Firstly, this paper proposes a new approach which can extract two different types of finger-vein features and achieves a most promising performance. Unlike the existing approaches based on curvature [6,13], the proposed method emphasizes the difference value of the two curvatures in any two orthogonal tangential directions, so the finger region vein can be distinguished from other regions such as the flat region, the isolated noise and irregular shading.

Meanwhile, the finger-vein orientation is also estimated by computing Batimastat the maximum difference value.Secondly, we proposed a localized matching method to accommodate the potential local and global variations at same time. The localized vein sub-regions are obtained according to feature points which can be determined by the improved feature points removal scheme in the SIFT framework.

However, both the drive and detect channels are implemented on a

However, both the drive and detect channels are implemented on a PCB as well as the resonator frequency is detected by a PLL. In order to overcome the aforementioned need for an extra temperature sensor and system size issues, a concept design using the FPGA-based compensation method was discussed by the authors of [15] and a whole integration system is proposed in this study.In this study, the TBD behavior of the fabricated micro-gyroscope is investigated and an active compensation system is integrated in the ASIC to suppress the undesired TBD. First, the design and fabrication principles of the micro-gyroscope are described in Section 2. Moreover, the details of the designed CMOS drive/readout circuit are addressed in Section 3.

Section 4 discusses the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope and deals with the proposed active thermal compensation system. Then, the behavior of the micro-gyroscope system with the proposed active thermal compensation system is verified by some experimental results and addressed in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 concludes this work.2.?System ArchitectureThe system block diagram of the proposed MEMS-based gyroscope with active thermal compensation is shown in Figure 1. The system comprises three parts: the micro-machined mechanical gyroscope, the analog part and the digital part of the ASIC. In this study, the micro-gyroscope is a vibratory type gyroscope, which consists of a resonator in the X-axis direction and a Coriolis accelerometer in the Y-axis direction.

As the external angular rate about Z-axis is presented, the Coriolis accelerometer would respond to oscillations due to the resonator and is driven all the time into resonance. Moreover, the designed drive/readout ASIC consists of a driving-loop circuit to drive the resonator Cilengitide into resonance, a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) to detect the Coriolis signal, as well as a gain/offset trimming ADC to adjust this output, a charge pump to supply high DC voltage for polarization and frequency adjustment, and the digital signal processing circuit for digital frequency synthesis and I2C interface communication. Furthermore, the proposed active thermal compensation system is integrated in the digital part of the ASIC to compensate the bias-drift due to the varying temperature.Figure 1.Block diagram of proposed MEMS-based gyroscope system.2.1.

Dynamics of MEMS Vibratory GyroscopeThe equivalent 2-DOF mass-damper-spring system shown in Figure 2 is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the MEMS vibratory gyroscope. The resonator and Croiolis accelerometer are driven to vibrate about the X-axis for the drive mode. The sense mode of the Coriolis accelerometer is responded to vibrate about the Y-axis if the exerted angular rate about the Z-axis is presented.Figure 2.Equivalent 2-DOF mass-damper-spring system.

The response-time curves of several typical dynamic cycles were i

The response-time curves of several typical dynamic cycles were illustrated in Figure 5. It is estimated that the response time is about 3 s, and the recovery time is about 25 s. Here the response time is shorter than the recovery time, which is the same as the general phenomenon of humidity sensors. The MWCNT network has a good reversibility, although its sensitivity decreases about 7% after four cycles of humidity switch between 25% and 75% RH. This result indicates that the interaction between water vapor and MWCNT networks is mainly dominated by physisorption with a weak bond.Figure 5.Time response and recovery curve of the MWCNT network from RH=25 % to 75 %.To determine the effect of temperature on resistances of MWCNT networks, the resistance of the MWCNT network was measured at a temperature range from 293K to 393K.

The resistance linearly decreased with increasing temperatures,
The image formation process through consumer imaging devices is intrinsically noisy. This is especially true using low-cost devices such as mobile-phones, PDAs, etc., mainly in low-light conditions and the absence of flash-guns [1].The final perceived quality of images acquired by digital sensors can be optimized through multi-shot acquisitions (e.g., extending dynamic range [2], increasing resolution [3]) and/or using ad-hoc post-processing techniques [4,5] taking into account the raw data acquired by Bayer matrixed image sensors [6]. These are grayscale sensors covered by CFA (Color Filter Array) to enable color sensitivity, such that each cell of the sensor array is receptive to only one color component.

The final color image is obtained by means of a color reconstruction (demosaicing) algorithm that combines the color information of neighboring pixels [7�C9] and [10]. A useful review of technology and methods in the field can be found in [1] and [11].In this paper we propose a novel spatial noise reduction method that directly processes the raw CFA data, combining together HVS (Human Visual System) heuristics, texture/edges preservation techniques and sensor noise statistics, in order to obtain an effective adaptive denoising.The proposed algorithm introduces the concept of the usage of HVS peculiarities directly on the CFA raw data from the sensor. In addition, the complexity of the algorithm is kept low by using only spatial information and a small fixed-size filter processing window, allowing real-time performance on low cost imaging devices (e.

g., mobile phones, PDAs).The HVS properties, able to characterize or isolate unpleasant artifacts, are complex (highly nonlinear) phenomena not yet completely understood involving AV-951 a lot of complex parameters [12,13]. Several studies in the literature have tried to simulate and code some known aspects in order to find reliable image metrics [14�C16] and heuristics to also be applied for demosaicing [17].

References [17�C19] describe a detailed review of recent MDR app

References [17�C19] describe a detailed review of recent MDR applications. The MDR are optical modes that are observed in dielectric resonator, and are excited by coupling light from a tunable laser into the resonator using a single mode optical fiber.A simplified description of the MDR phenomenon can be obtained by using geometric optics as shown in Figure 1. This description is valid when the wavelength of the light used to excite the optical modes is much smaller than the size of the optical cavity. In this geometric view, light coupled into the microsphere (for example using a single mode optical fiber) circles the interior of the sphere through total internal reflection as long as the refractive index of the sphere is larger than that of the surrounding medium.Figure 1.

Ray optics description of MDR in a sphere.The condition for optical resonance is 2�� Rn = l��, where �� is the vacuum wavelength of the light (supplied by a laser), l is an integer, R is the sphere radius, and n is the sphere refractive index. An external effect applied to the sphere that induces a change in both the radius, ��R, (mechanical strain) and the refractive index, ��n, (due to mechanical stress) leads to a shift in the optical resonance (MDR) as follows:��RR+��nn=���˦�(1)Therefore, any change in the index of refraction and radius of the microsphere induced by the external effect can be sensed by monitoring the change (shift) in the resonance (MDR) of the microsphere. Our earlier studies on MDR have shown that for most sphere materials (silica and polymers), ��R/R dominates over ��n/n and the latter can be neglected [7].

The general optical arrangement for these sensors is depicted in Figure 2. The optical modes are excited by coupling light from a tunable laser (with nominal power of a few mW) into the sphere using a single mode optical fiber as shown in Figure 2a. The optical fiber which carries light from the tunable laser serves as an input/output port for the microsphere. Brefeldin_A When the microsphere is brought in contact with a tapered section of the optical fiber its optical resonances are observed as sharp dips in the transmission spectrum at the end of the fiber as illustrated in Figure 2b.Figure 2.(a) Schematic of sensor system and (b) observed transmission spectrum.A key factor that makes this phenomenon attractive for sensor applications is the very large optical quality factors, Q, of the optical resonances. The observed line-width, �Ħ�, is related to the optical quality factor as Q = ��/�Ħ�. In our laboratories we can routinely achieve optical quality factor of 107.Here, we investigate the effect of angular velocity on the MDR shifts of spherical resonators that are used as sensing element as described above.

This enables the use of QDs for multiplexing by probing several m

This enables the use of QDs for multiplexing by probing several markers at a time with a single excitation source, thus preventing overheating of cells or tissue during multi-color imaging, leading to great promise for both in vitro and in vivo applications and to simplification in instrumental design. This feature can be hard to achieve with conventional fluorophores due to their overlapping absorption and emission spectra. Photoluminescence lifetimes of QDs are usually long, which allows imaging of living cells without interference from background autofluorescence. All these issues, together with stability (much less photodestruction) and large surface-to-volume ratios, make QDs superior to organic fluorophores in detection sensitivity as well as in long-term tracking of biological processes.

Cumulatively, these fluorescent properties will lead to the creation of a new generation of robust biosensors.Furthermore, the possibility of tuning the emission from the QDs as to improve spectral overlap with a particular acceptor dye, make QDs suitable for their use as efficient fluorescence resonance ener
A light emitting diode (LED) is fabricated from p-type and n-type semiconductor materials, and an input voltage causes the LED chip to glow by combining electron holes and electrons at Batimastat the p-n junction. An LED emits various colors, which are determined by the combined semiconductors.

The advantages of an LED over a light-bulb include its small volume, low temperature, low power consumption, long lifetime, fast response and environmental friendliness, whereas the standard light-bulb is limited in terms of high power consumption, ease of breakage and mercury pollution.

LEDs are expected to replace all conventional light-bulbs in the next decade. Eight percent of the input power of an LED is converted to thermal energy; the area of epitaxy is very small, and the heat flux per unit area exceeds that of a central processing unit (CPU). LEDs with a high heat flux output require a strongly conducting radiator, to prevent the destruction of the package of the epitaxy [1].The temperature of the junction affects LED performance in several ways.

The light output center wavelength, spectrum, power and diode Dacomitinib reliability all depend directly on the junction temperature, which in an LED cannot be measured using currently available instruments. Accordingly, Siegal [2] utilized the principle of a diode to indirectly measure the junction temperature in an LED. Although some investigations have determined junction temperatures by estimating thermal resistance, such an indirect method is inaccurate [3,4].