Phenolic compounds from fermented rice bran were extracted with m

Phenolic compounds from fermented rice bran were extracted with methanol at a ratio of 1:10 (w/v), following the method described by Souza, Oliveira, Rocha, and Furlong (2010). Samples of 5 g were subjected to orbital shaking (150 rpm) at room temperature for 3 h with methanol and the extract obtained was filtered through filter paper (Whatman n° 4) into a separating funnel and washed three times with 10 mL of hexane. The methanolic extract was evaporated on a rota-evaporator at 50 °C under reduced pressure and the phenolic compounds were resuspended with 10 ml of distilled water in an ultrasonic bath for 10 min. The resulting extract was clarified with 5 ml of 0.1 M ZnSO4

and 5 mL of 0.1 M Ba(OH)2, and allowed to rest for 20 min. After centrifugation (10 min, 25 °C, 3200g,) the supernatant containing the phenolic

compound was collected, lyophilized and quantified SRT1720 spectrophotometrically Afatinib at 750 nm with Folin–Ciocalteau reagent (Qell, Brazil) using ferulic acid (Sigma, Japan) as standard (2–20 μg/ml). Phenolic extracts were resuspended in water and methanol (1:1), and 20 μL aliquots injected into a chromatograph (Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan, CLASS-M10A) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min at 35 °C. The separation of the phenolic acids was accomplished using a C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm, Discovery®, USA) and a gradient isocratic solvent consisting of methanol and acidified water (1% v/v acetic acid) at a 20:80 ratio during 25 min, with UV detection at 280 nm until 15 min and 320 nm until 25 min. Phenolic acids were identified by comparison of retention times and absorption spectrum with different standards of phenols present in rice bran (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric,

ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, syringic and vanillin, obtained from Sigma–Aldrich, USA) as described in the literature ( Mira et al., 2008 and Pourali et al., 2010). The detection limit (LOD) was calculated by the background Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease noise signal (solution containing the solvents used in the extraction of phenolic compounds) at 3:1. The determination limit (LOQ) was established as three times the amount of the LOD ( Ribani, Bottoli, Collins, Jardim, & Melo, 2004). The phenolic antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined according to the methods described by Rufino et al., 2009 and Sánchez-Moreno et al., 1998 and Brand-Wiliams, Cuvelier, & Berset, 1995 measured by the reduction in free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrihidrazil (DPPH). This method is based on the transfer of electrons from one antioxidant substance to a free radical, DPPH, which loses its purple colour upon reduction, becoming yellow. Different concentrations of solutions of ascorbic acid (0.01–0.1 mg/mL), ferulic acid (0.01–1 mg/ml), fermented and unfermented rice bran (0.01–0.

DHA was converted into AA according to the method of Campos et al

DHA was converted into AA according to the method of Campos et al. (2009), adapted for fruits. Trizma buffer (0.5 M) containing 40 mM DTT (2.0 ml for persimmons and acerola and 2.5 ml for strawberries) was added to 1 ml of the sample extract. Addition of the buffer to the extract increased the pH to a value close to neutrality (pH 5.5–6.0). The mixture was left to react for 10 min at room

temperature in the dark. After this period, 0.4 M H2SO4 was added (1.5 ml for persimmons and acerola and 2.0 ml for strawberries) to again reduce the pH before chromatographic injection. Vitamin A value is expressed as retinol activity equivalent (RAE) per 100 g sample according to the conversion factors for vitamin A value established by the Institute of Medicine (Institute of Medicine (IOM-US), 2001). According to the IOM

definition, 1 RAE MLN0128 concentration corresponds to 1 μg retinol or 12 μg β-carotene. The results were analysed by the Student t-test (α = 5%) using the SAS (Statistical Analysis System) program, version 9.1, licensed to the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fig. 1 shows typical chromatograms obtained for the analysis of AA, lycopene and β-carotene in fruits. AA and β-carotene were found in all fruit samples, whereas lycopene was only detected in persimmons. DHA was detected in all fruits analysed, except for conventionally grown acerola. All components presented good linearity Screening Library in vivo in the range of concentrations tested (injected weight: AA, 0.204–113.75 μg; lycopene, 0.0012–0.0572 μg; β-carotene, 0.0085–0.4905 μg). The coefficients of determination were 0.9975 for AA, 0.9932 for lycopene, and 0.9985 for β-carotene. For persimmons, mean recovery of AA, lycopene and β-carotene was 99.5%, 102.8% and 85.2%, respectively. For

acerola, mean recovery of AA and β-carotene was 101% and 90.6%, respectively. For strawberries, mean recovery of AA and β-carotene was 95.7% and 97.7%, respectively. The limit of detection was 50 μg/L for AA, 60 μg/L for lycopene, and 50 μg/L for β-carotene. The limit of quantification was 75 μg/L Erythromycin for AA, 85 μg/L for lycopene, and 70 μg/L for β-carotene. The mean concentrations of AA and DHA found in the samples of organically and conventionally grown fruits are shown in Table 1. For persimmons, AA content was similar for the two production systems, whereas DHA content was significantly higher in conventionally grown fruits (p < 0.05), accounting for 38.5% of total vitamin C. According to Lee and Kader (2000), DHA may account for up to 47.6% of total vitamin C in persimmons, depending on the variety. Acerola was the fruit presenting the highest AA concentration. AA content was significantly higher (practically the double) in organically grown acerola compared to conventionally grown fruits (p < 0.05). Cultivation factors such as soil preparation, use of agricultural defensives and the type and frequency of irrigation may explain the difference between the two production systems.

We could not link age with internal dioxin levels, but other inve

We could not link age with internal dioxin levels, but other investigators have done so (Warner et al., 2005 and Dhooge et al., 2006). CB-839 concentration A relatively strong association was found between smoking and plasma androgenic activity, which increased with approximately 20%. Smoking has been reported

to increase serum Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) and total testosterone levels, but no clear differences in bioavailable testosterone were seen (English et al., 2001). Tobacco smoke consists of a mixture of endocrine disrupting toxicants, such as PAHs (Arcaro et al., 1999) and cadmium (Henson and Chedrese, 2004). Possibly, these chemicals are able to directly activate androgen receptors without altering the level of endogenous bioavailable testosterone. The increased androgenic activity associated with alcohol consumption also seems unlikely to result from elevated endogenous testosterone (Svartberg et al., 2003) and could reflect a receptor-activating

potential of e.g. ethanol, phytoestrogens, or other constituents. Based on the current data, however, we can only speculate about the explanations for the increased androgenic plasma activities in smokers and heavy drinkers. The effect estimates for the use of personal care products were inconclusive. Many personal care products contain a mixture of phthalates, parabens, solvents, and UV screens, for which different endocrine disrupting properties have been reported (McKim et al., 2001, Harvey and Darbre,

2004 and Main et al., 2006). In order to draw conclusions about the effects of personal care check details products on the total plasma androgenic and estrogenic activities, a more detailed exposure assessment method is required. A different population recruitment strategy that would capture men with higher exposure levels could give more insight into the effects of personal care products as well. Due to small numbers, we could not reliably assess the effects of regular consumption of phytoestrogens in soy. For the intake of animal fats, which are sources of persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (Bilau et al., 2008), no associations with estrogenic or androgenic activities were found. Comparing the data on current dietary habits with the DR CALUX® measurements provided some indications for increased internal dioxin levels among men with high intakes of chicken and eggs (Supplemental Table 1). But the intake of beef, pork, and dairy products seemed to be inversely associated with plasma TEQs, which was unexpected. We examined confounding by other determinants including the other dietary intake variables and hypothesized that a high intake of chicken or eggs could be associated with a low intake of beef and pork or dairy, resulting in the inverse associations. After adjustment for intake of chicken and eggs, however, even smaller betas were found.

The total area burnt by the smouldering wildfire (i e that propo

The total area burnt by the smouldering wildfire (i.e. that proportion of the surface affected by the flaming fire where peat and duff were subsequently consumed by smouldering combustion) was estimated to be 4.1 ha (30% of the flaming fire area within the selleck inhibitor forest). Total fuel consumption across the area of smouldering wildfire was

estimated as 773 ± 120 t this corresponds to an average loss of 96 ± 15 t ha−1 of carbon (9.6 ± 1.5 kg m−2). There was no obvious, strong relationship between the average depth of burn and the average height of blackening on tree trunks, although it did appear that the areas of greatest depth of burn seemed to occur where tree density was greater (Fig. 4). There were significant correlations between pre-fire peat depth and both the depth of burn (r = 0.50, P < 0.001) and the depth of peat remaining after the fire (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the depth of burn and the depth of peat remaining. Smouldering combustion of peat deposits was only observed to have occurred within an area of plantation forestry and around the bases of native pine trees in adjacent areas of Calluna-dominated moorland. In the zone of the wildfire where active smouldering was observed to occur carbon loss averaged 96 ± 15 t ha−1. This value does not include carbon losses due to consumption of surface and crown fuels during the passing of the initial flame

front, nor does it account for post-fire carbon losses due to erosion or altered rates of peat decomposition. Our figure is towards the top of the range of values reported by previous studies in tropical, this website temperate, boreal and arctic peatlands that made direct, field-based estimates of carbon loss ( Table 5). Our figure is also in agreement, though again at the higher DOK2 end, of values reported

by Benscoter and Wieder (2003) in a review of studies that used a range of techniques, including remote sensing, to estimate organic soil consumption during wildfires. They reported mean values of 15–25 t C ha−1 for North America and 17–23 t C ha−1 for Northern Europe and Asia. The total amount of carbon released due to ground-fuel consumption was estimated to be 396 ± 63 t. A recent study (Worrall et al., 2003) estimated that the amount of carbon sequestered annually by UK peatlands lies between 0.15 and 0.29 Mt yr−1. The relatively small peat fire of 4.1 ha studied here released between 0.1% and 0.3% of that estimate. Given the likely post-fire changes in hydrology due, for example, to hydrophobicity of charred peat (Mallik and Rahman, 1985) and changes in ground-surface microclimate (Mallik, 1986), total C loss as a result of the fire will be greater due to peat oxidation, increased fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and potential erosion of the exposed peat. Though the fire we studied here only covered an area of 13.

Data review was performed by at least three distinct scientists a

Data review was performed by at least three distinct scientists at two different laboratories: the Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory (AFDIL); and the Institute of Legal Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University (GMI), curator of the European DNA Profiling Group mtDNA population (EMPOP) database ( [23]. In detail, the review

steps were as follows. Initial assembly, trimming and review of the raw sequence data for each sample was performed in Sequencher version 4.8 or 5.0 (Gene Codes Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI). Sequences were aligned to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS; [32] and [33]) following phylogenetic alignment rules [25], [26] and [34]. In cases of length heteroplasmy (LHP), a single dominant variant was identified (as per recommendations for mtDNA data interpretation [26] and [34]). With regard to point heteroplasmy

(PHP), an mtGenome position selleck kinase inhibitor was deemed heteroplasmic only if specific criteria were met upon visual review of the raw sequence data: (1) If the minor sequence variant was readily visible (i.e., a distinct peak of normal morphology with white space beneath it could be seen in the trace data without changing the chromatogram view in Sequencher to examine the Z-VAD-FMK mouse signal closer to the baseline) in all of the sequences covering the position, and those sequences were generated using both forward and reverse primers, a PHP was called. When heteroplasmy was suspected but not confirmed according to the Cediranib (AZD2171) above criteria, additional sequence data were generated for the sample/region

to clarify the presence or absence of heteroplasmy. Once each sample haplotype was complete (i.e., every mtGenome position had at least two strands of high-resolution sequence coverage), a list of differences from the rCRS was prepared manually, and a variance report was electronically exported from Sequencher. Each mtGenome haplotype contig generated during the primary analysis of the raw data was reviewed on a position-by-position basis by a second scientist. A list of differences from the rCRS was generated manually and compared to the list generated at the primary analysis stage, and any discrepancies were resolved to the satisfaction of both reviewers. A variance report was again exported from Sequencher, and compared to the manually-prepared lists of differences from the rCRS to ensure full agreement across all paper and electronic records. In addition, sequences present in the final sample contig were visually examined to confirm that all sequences had the same sample identifier (i.e., that no sequences from a different sample were mistakenly included). The Sequencher variance reports exported at the secondary analysis stage were electronically imported into the custom software Laboratory Information Systems Applications (LISA; Future Technologies Inc., Fairfax VA).

IL-4- and IL-5-positive cells were also measured in the peribronc

IL-4- and IL-5-positive cells were also measured in the peribronchovascular

space, where the infiltration by inflammatory cells in this murine model is more intense (Vieira et al., 2007 and Arantes-Costa et al., 2008). TGF-β- and IL-10-positive cells were measured in the bronchial epithelium, in the area between the basement membrane and airway lumen. Cell density was assessed as the number of positive cells divided by the respective basement membrane length (cells/μm) in 5 bronchovascular structures at a ×400 magnification. All morphometric measurements were performed in a blinded fashion. Comparisons among groups were performed by a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (parametric data) or by a one-way analysis of variance on ranks followed by Dunn’s post Duvelisib hoc test (non-parametric data). The significance level was adjusted to 5% (p < 0.05). The correlation high throughput screening assay between the number of TGF-β-positive cells in the bronchial epithelium and collagen fiber content was performed using Pearson’s correlation. For statistical analyses, we used the Sigma

Stat 3.5 Software (San Jose, CA). OVA exposure resulted in a significant increase in lung eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages (Table 1). The increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages in the BALF were not observed in the group that was exposed to both ovalbumin and cigarette smoke (OVA + CS group). Exposure to cigarette smoke also attenuated the increase in eosinophils induced by OVA exposure;

therefore, Reverse transcriptase the numbers of eosinophils observed in the BALF of the OVA + CS group were significantly greater than in the CS group but lower than in the OVA group. There was an increase in total serum IgE in both of the sensitized mouse groups (OVA and OVA + CS groups) compared with the control and CS groups (p < 0.001). Cigarette smoke exposure did not affect this increase in IgE ( Fig. 2). OVA exposure resulted in higher values of tissue elastance (Htis) compared with the control and CS groups (p < 0.05) ( Fig. 3A). The values of Htis after methacholine challenge were significantly greater in the OVA group compared with the control group (p < 0.008 at concentrations of 6, 12 and 25 mg/mL, and p < 0.05 at basal levels and 50 mg/mL). No significant increase in pulmonary elastance response was observed in the OVA + CS group compared with the control and CS groups. There were no significant differences in the Gtis (small airways resistance) or Raw (airways resistance) values among the four experimental groups ( Fig. 3B and C). IL-4 levels in the lung tissue were increased in the OVA group when compared with all of the other groups (p < 0.04) ( Fig. 4A). The OVA group also showed a significant increase in IL-4-positive cells in the peribronchovascular compartment (p = 0.01 compared with the control group, Fig. 4B).

Is it possible that the difference in children’s performance acro

Is it possible that the difference in children’s performance across the two experiments is due to the tasks requiring different types of competence: for example, that experiment 1 requires the derivation of quantity implicatures but experiment 2 only requires sensitivity to informativeness? We cannot see any motivation

for postulating this. The experiments do not differ in terms of visual or procedural complexity, and use exactly the same linguistic stimuli, visual animations and overall scenario. Moreover, the experiments do not differ in terms of the meta-linguistic demands of the task, as they both require participants to pass judgment on utterances. The only apparent difference is the use of a ternary scale in experiment 2, which enables participants to give a response that is more lenient than a downright rejection but stricter than a thorough endorsement of the utterance. If our claims are well-founded, it should follow that children’s pragmatic Selleckchem Trametinib competence is best investigated using paradigms in which pragmatic tolerance cannot cloud the interpretation of the participants’ Ruxolitinib performance. To test this supposition, we

now turn to the sentence-to-picture matching paradigm, where participants are visually presented with four outcomes of a scenario, and they are asked to select the picture that matches their interpretation of the utterances used in experiments 1 and 2. The computer-based judgement task used in experiments 1 and 2 was modified as follows. The experimenter explains that participants will see some stories and that Mr. Caveman will narrate what is going on in the story. After being introduced

to each story, the participant will be presented with four pictures on the screen, and Mr. Caveman will say what eventually happened in the story that he has in his mind. The participant should then point to the picture that matches Mr. Caveman’s story. The trials begin as in experiments 1 and 2. After the initial screen display showing Avelestat (AZD9668) the protagonist and the objects that may be affected, participants are shown a second screen divided into four (see Appendix C for a sample visual display). Mr. Caveman then says ‘In my story…’ and then continues his utterance with the pre-recorded utterances used in experiments 1 and 2. Participants are then asked to point to the picture that matches Mr. Caveman’s story. The pictures differed in the type of objects that were depicted as affected by the protagonist’s actions (e.g. carrots, pumpkins; heart, triangle) and in their quantity (some or all, either or both). For example, in a critical trial for scalar ‘some’, participants were presented with four pictures, corresponding to the situations in which the mouse picked up three out of five carrots, or three out of five pumpkins, or five out of five carrots, or five out of five pumpkins. They then heard ‘In my story, the mouse picked up some of the carrots’.

3) In part due to flow regulation, water consumption over the wa

3). In part due to flow regulation, water consumption over the watershed increased from 153.9 × 108 m3/yr in the 1950s to 422.3 × 108 m3/yr during 2000–2005 (Peng and Chen, 2009), resulting in declining water and sediment discharges to the sea (Wang et al., 2006 and Wang et al., 2007). Average suspended sediment concentration of the Huanghe water to the sea during 1950–1999 approached 25.5 kg/m3 (Wang et al., 2010). After the construction of the Xiaolangdi reservoir, however, the dam trapped substantial amounts of coarse sediment. The silt-laden

find more river has become cleaner, and average suspended sediment concentration of the Huanghe water to the sea during 2000–2012 was as low as 8.3 kg/m3, only 32.5% of the pre-2000 level. The average annual suspended sediment concentration during

2000–2012 fluctuated slightly from 4.4 to 19.2 kg/m3 (Table 4) a smaller range in comparison with 10–50 kg/m3 during 1950–1999 (Wang et al., 2010). These changes can be mainly attributed to dam entrapment of sediment. The elevated riverbed of the lower Huanghe is a result of successive sedimentation of coarse sediment carried by the river. The average grain size of surface sediment (collected in 2002) decreases from Gaocun station to the river mouth (as shown in Fig. 4A), reflecting the sedimentation process in the lower reaches. Since the beginning of WSM, however, both the suspended sediment concentration and average grain size increase from Huayuankou to Lijin, mainly due to intense riverbed scouring. Therefore, the initiation of WSM in 2002 caused a shift from sedimentation to erosion in the riverbed of the lower reaches. By 2011, up to 3.9 × 108 t sediment had been scoured during WSM, and the riverbed was lowered by ∼2 m. The scoured material provides an important source of fluvial sediment to the sea. During WSM in 2002–2010, the scoured sediments provided ∼60% of the fluvial sediments

to the sea, more than those directly released from the Xiaolangdi reservoir. Moreover, the scoured sediment is mostly sand, leading to an increase in grain-size for the suspended sediment from Xiaolangdi to Lijin (see Fig. 4A). Data at Lijin station reveals that the average grain size of sediment had increased from an average of 18 μm during 1950–1999 (Wang et al., 2010), to 24 μm during 2002–2012 (Table 4). This combined effect of sediment entrapment Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) and riverbed scouring is depicted in Fig. 4B. Trapping by the Xiaolangdi dam leads to significantly-decreased suspended sediment concentration of the water entering the lower reaches, whereas average suspended sediment concentration and grain size increase in a stepwise fashion owing to scouring of the riverbed during the journey from Xiaolangdi to the sea, as shown in Fig. 4B. The transport of sediment through river channels has major consequences for public safety, management of water resources, and environmental sustainability (Frey and Church, 2009).

, 2006) In the northeastern Spanish Mediterranean region, vineya

, 2006). In the northeastern Spanish Mediterranean region, vineyards have been cultivated since the 12th century on hillslopes with terracing systems utilizing stone walls. Since the 1980–1990s, viticulture, due to the increasing of the related economic market, has been based on ABT-199 research buy new terracing systems constructed using heavy machinery. This practice reshaped the landscape of the region, producing vast material displacement, an increase of mass movements due to topographic irregularities, and a significant visual impact. Cots-Folch

et al. (2006) underlined that land terracing can be considered as a clear example of an anthropic geomorphic process that is rapidly reshaping the terrain morphology. Terracing has been practiced in Italy since the Neolithic and is well documented from the Middle Ages onward. In the 1700s, Italian agronomists such as Landeschi, Ridolfi and Testaferrata began to learn the art of hill and mountain terracing, earning their recognition as “Tuscan masters of hill management” (Sereni, 1961). Several agronomic treatises written in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Depsipeptide observe that in those times there was a critical situation

due to a prevalence of a “rittochino” (slopewise) practice (Greppi, 2007). During the same period, the need to increase agricultural surfaces induced farmers to till the soil even on steep slopes and hence to engage in impressive terracing works. Terraced areas are found all over Italy, from the Alps to the Apennines and in the interior, both in the hilly and mountainous areas, representing distinguishing elements of the cultural identity of the country, particularly in the rural areas. Contour terraces and regular terraces remained in use until the second post-war period, as long as sharecropping

contracts guaranteed their constant maintenance. Thus, PLEKHM2 terraces became a regular feature of many hill and mountain landscapes in central Italy. Beginning in the 1940s, the gradual abandonment of agricultural areas led to the deterioration of these typical elements of the landscape. With the industrialization of agriculture and the depopulation of the countryside since the 1960s, there has been a gradual decline in terrace building and maintenance, as a consequence of the introduction of tractors capable of tilling the soil along the steepest direction of the hillside (“a rittochino”), which resulted in a reduction of labour costs. Basically, this means the original runoff drainage system is lost. The results consist of an increase in soil erosion due to uncontrolled runoff concentration and slope failures that can be a serious issue for densely populated areas.

Several correlations between PSV and the degree of stenosis measu

Several correlations between PSV and the degree of stenosis measured by X-ray angiography were published [10] and

a consensus for threshold values based on a meta-analysis was published [4]. However all correlations between PSV and angiography showed a considerable scatter. Therefore the NASCET group [2] and recently the AHA did not recommend carotid surgery in symptomatic patients based on duplex sonography alone [8]. In Germany, as in other European countries the local diameter narrowing (ESCT method) was popular whereas in the US the distal diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was taken as denominator (distal diameter narrowing, NASCET method). The ESCT method results in higher degrees of stenosis especially in the range of up to 70% stenosis [11]. This opened the possibility of misuse by measuring following the ESCT method and recommending carotid surgery following the NASCET criterion of 70%.

In consequence new intersociety guidelines were published in Germany [1] very similar to the first ones [15], but using the NASCET method as the morphologic correlate. In addition the role of color coded imaging for detecting Target Selective Inhibitor Library manufacturer low degree disease and total occlusion was added, as well as PSV values. Recently a similar consensus was reached by the Neurosonology Research Group (NSRG) of the WFN [10]. Both of these guidelines emphasize the difference between main or primary and additional criteria. They are listed in Table 1. This article shall outline the background

of grading a stenosis and especially focus on the weighting of these ultrasonic criteria as main and secondary. A stenosis can be graded following its morphologic or hemodynamic effect. The morphologic Methisazone aspect is measured in mm or as percent diameter reduction. Additional features can be described as precise location or shape of the plaque, regular or irregular. The hemodynamic effect can be measured as local flow velocity at the level of a plaque or stenosis [13], pressure drop or reduced flow volume. Doppler ultrasound in its clinical application cannot measure the two last parameters directly, but make estimations by measuring prestenotic side to side differences, the appearance of collateral flow, the poststenotic pulsatility and velocity of flow and flow disturbances [6]. Both the morphologic parameters and the hemodynamic parameters can be translated to each other, i.e. “a hemodynamic relevant stenosis corresponds to a ≥70% stenosis (NASCET)”, or “in a 80% stenosis collateral flow via the circle of Willis is highly probable”. In general the final diagnosis will be expressed in % diameter reduction, as it is the tradition with angiography. In mild degrees of stenosis duplex sonography describes both the morphology and local hemodynamic as well. With increasing severity a precise morphologic description is more difficult due to calcium shadowing and reverberation. Hemodynamic parameters are however more useful.