However, on UM clearfelled sites desired invader species such as Oxalis acetosella (woodsorrel), Anemone nemorosa (wood anemone), Conopodium majus (pignut) and Primula vulgaris (primrose) were not found, while bluebell was seen on only 15 quadrats and Teucrium scorodonia (wood sage) on just 2. The solitary PAWS site that was examined had a considerably richer ground flora with wood sorrel, wood sage and bluebell seen on 21%, 29% and 79% of quadrats respectively. We found that the sites which had been clearfelled 10 years PF-01367338 cell line ago had significantly
greater vascular plant coverage (111%) compared to sites that had been clearfelled 2 years ago (11.7%, p = 0.001). The % mean woody debris on spruce clearfell sites declined from 51% 2 years after felling to 12.7% and 5.1% at 5 and 10 years post-felling respectively. We have
explored the regeneration density of native broadleaved species on clearfelled conifer sites in upland Britain. We compared regeneration on clearfelled sites to control sites that had neither been planted with conifers or clearfelled. We restricted our analysis to a subset of sites with similar BGB324 order time since clearfelling and soil type. Mean regeneration density on this subset of clearfelled upland moorland sites (3392 individuals/ha) was significantly greater than on upland moorland (64 individuals/ha) or improved farmland (14 individuals/ha) sites. Availability of data meant that in this analysis we combined sites across regions (Lake District and eastern
Scotland) and were unable to account for site location as a covariate. Regeneration density on all clearfelled upland moorland sites (3515 individuals/ha) was at the lower end of that recorded by Harmer and Morgan (2009) (3000–11,000 individuals/ha) in a storm damaged lowland conifer site in south-east England that had been allowed to naturally regenerate. The regeneration density we recorded was lower than conifer regeneration Liothyronine Sodium within small windthrows (Jonásová et al., 2010) or clearfells (Modrý et al., 2004 and Holgén and Hånell, 2000) where sapling densities as great as 160,000 individuals/ha have been recorded (Modrý et al., 2004, Holgén and Hånell, 2000 and Jonásová et al., 2010). The high regeneration density in these studies was likely due to an ample seed source due to the surrounding woodland whereas in our study the seed source was limited to individual mature trees. Nevertheless, the regeneration density on clearfelled upland moorland sites and a clearfelled PAWS site (5790 stems/ha) exceeded the suggested sapling stocking densities for new native woodland in Britain of between 500 and 2000 stems/ha (Forestry Commission, 2010). The diversity of regenerating species was usually lower than that of the adjacent seed sources with regeneration dominated by birch on all but one clearfelled site, as has been found previously at storm damaged lowland sites in Britain (Harmer and Morgan, 2009 and Harmer et al.