9 ng/mL or 150 nM; Table 2) All patients (M, N, O, and P) were i

9 ng/mL or 150 nM; Table 2). All patients (M, N, O, and P) were infected with Napabucasin HCV genotype 1a and experienced maximal HCV RNA declines of ≥2.9 log10. HCV RNA remained detectable in all of the

patients, and viral breakthrough was observed at the end of treatment (Fig. 1D). The preexisting resistance variant, Q30R, was detected (∼10%) at baseline in patient M (Table 3D). However, continuous HCV RNA decline suggests that this variant was, at least initially, suppressed by the 60-mg dose of BMS-790052 (Fig. 1D). At day 14, a variant with Q30H and Y93H linkage was detected in this patient (Table 3D). The level of resistance of genotype 1a variant Q30H-Y93H was high, with an EC50 value of 409.8 ng/mL or ∼553 nM (Table 2). For patients N and O, Q30E and Y93N were observed at day 14. These variants conferred substantial resistance to BMS-790052 (EC50 values: 110.9 or 150 nM and 208.9 ng/mL or 282 nM, respectively;

Table 2). For patient P, a Q30R variant was first detected 12 hours post–first dose and became the only variant detected at day 14 (Table 3D). Because the plasma exposure of BMS-790052 at day 14 in this patient was 86.8 ng/mL or ∼117 nM (data not shown), and the EC50 value for a genotype 1a replicon containing the Q30R substitution in NS5A is ∼7 nM or 5.4 ng/mL (Table 2), a rigorous investigation was triggered to understand the basis of the resistance observed in patient P. A detailed analysis of this resistant variant

will be presented elsewhere. All patients (3 infected with genotype 1a ZD1839 [patients Q, R, and S] and 1 with genotype 1b [patient T]) experienced HCV RNA declines ≥3.5 log10 (Fig. 1E). Preexisting resistance variants were not detected in the 3 patients (Q, R, and S; Table 3E) infected with the genotype 1a virus. Variants with substitutions that yield low or moderate levels of resistance, such as M28T/V, Q30H, and H58D, were detected at early time points (Table 3E); variants with substitutions yielding higher levels of resistance, such as Q30E and Q30R-H58D (EC50 value: 1,867 ng/mL or ∼2,521 nM), became apparent to at later time points (Tables 1 and 3E). For the genotype 1b patient T, population sequencing revealed that Q54H and Y93H substitutions were present at ∼100% in all time points analyzed. This variant was clearly suppressed by BMS-790052 at early time points (Fig. 1E). Q54H did not confer resistance, whereas Q54H-Y93H displayed a resistance profile similar to the Y93H variant (Table 1). At day 14, L31V, Q54H, and Y93H were all present at ∼100%, indicating linkage of these resistant variants in the rebounding virus (Table 3E). The genotype 1b L31V-Q54H-Y93H variant conferred a moderate level of resistance, with an EC50 value of 36.1 ng/mL or 48.7 nM (Table 1). HCV RNA remained detectable in 2 patients infected with genotype 1a virus (patients U and V; Fig. 1F).

We found no differences associated with the other amino acid posi

We found no differences associated with the other amino acid positions. Amino acid 70 was an independent factor for the responses to the therapy in multivariate analysis. Conclusion:  The identity of amino acid 70 of the HCV core region affected the sensitivity to IFN; patients with glutamine at amino acid 70 of HCV showed resistance to IFN. Consequently, it strongly affected the outcome of combination therapy with PEG-IFN and ribavirin in Japanese patients with HCV genotype 1b. “
“Background and Aim:  Allopurinol potentiates azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) by increasing 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) metabolite concentrations. The outcome Talazoparib might

also be improved by adding allopurinol in individuals who preferentially produce 6-methylmercaptopurine nucleotides (6-MMPN), EPZ-6438 concentration rather than 6-TGN. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of allopurinol on concentrations of 6-MMPN and 6-TGN in individuals with a high ratio of these metabolites

(>20), which is indicative of a poor thiopurine response. Methods:  Sixteen individuals were identified who were taking azathioprine or 6-MP, and were commenced on allopurinol to improve a high 6-MMPN : TGN ratio. Metabolite concentrations were compared before and after commencing allopurinol, and markers of disease control were compared. Results:  The addition of 100–300 mg allopurinol daily and thiopurine dose reduction (17–50% of the original dose) resulted in a reduction of the median (and range) 6-MMPN concentration, from 11 643 (3 365–27 832) to 221 (55–844) pmol/8 × 108 red blood cells (RBC; P = 0.0005), increased 6-TGN from 162 (125–300) to 332 (135–923) pmol/8 × 108 RBC (P = 0.0005), and reduced the 6-MMPN : 6-TGN ratio from 63 (12–199) to 1 (0.1–4.5)

(P = 0.0005). There was a significant reduction in steroid dose requirements at 12 months (P = 0.04) and trends for improvement in other markers of disease control. One patient developed red cell aplasia that resolved upon stopping azathioprine and allopurinol. Conclusions:  In those with a high 6-MMPN : 6-TGN ratio (>20), response to thiopurine treatment might be improved by the addition of allopurinol, together with a reduced thiopurine dose and close hematological monitoring. Sorafenib order
“Proteins of the karyopherin superfamily including importins and exportins represent an essential part of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. However, the functional relevance and regulation of karyopherins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood. Here we identified cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS, exportin-2) and its transport substrate importin-α1 (imp-α1) among significantly up-regulated transport factor genes in HCC. Disruption of the CAS/imp-α1 transport cycle by RNAi in HCC cell lines resulted in decreased tumor cell growth and increased apoptosis.

[15] Antiviral therapy or blockage of interleukin (IL)-10+/− TGF-

[15] Antiviral therapy or blockage of interleukin (IL)-10+/− TGF-β resulted in a partially enhanced activation state of NK cells and restored the capacity of NK cells to produce IFN-γ in vivo.[14, 16] HBV persistence also upregulates the expression of co-suppressive molecules (such as T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3), programmed death 1 [PD-1]) on surface of NK cells and downregulates the expression of NKG2D ligands, MHC class I-related chain A (MICA), on hepatocytes,

both contribute to inhibition of NK cell cytolysis ability and IFN-γ production, leading to NK cell dysfunction.[17, 18] GSK-3 phosphorylation NKT cells are greatly enriched in the liver and can rapidly detect and respond to Sorafenib mouse hepatocytes infected by HBV.[19] α-GalCer-activated invariant NK T (iNKT) cells are able to inhibit HBV replication

in vivo,[20] suggesting that NKT cells are part of an early sensing system and may further prime HBV-specific adaptive immune response. However, the number of circulating iNKT cells in CHB patients is lower compared with healthy donors and inactive healthy HBV carriers, while it increases to normal levels when HBV infection was controlled by antiviral therapy with telbivudine.[21, 22] In addition, as the messenger between the innate and adaptive immune system, plasmocytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) display diminished capacity to produce IFN-α in chronic HBV patients.[23-25] Moreover, the interaction between NK cells and pDCs were suppressed by HBV selleck inhibitor infection, as defined by inhibition of pDC-induced IFN-γ production by NK cells.[26] Untergasser A confirmed that circulating DCs take up HBV antigens and thus impairing the number and function of these cells.[27] The dysfunctional pDCs may further promote the immunopathogenesis of HBV infection. Collectively, the

persistence of HBV not only directly inhibits PRR recognition and the antiviral signaling pathways, leading to cell-intrinsic immunotolerance, but also suppresses the frequency and function of systemic innate immune cells (including NK, NKT, and pDCs), resulting in systemic innate immune tolerance (Fig. 1). HBV persistence severely impairs the function of CD8+ T cells, especially HBV-specific T cells. In CHB-infected patients, CD8+ T cells lose their ability to proliferate and antiviral function that is characterized by excessive inhibitory signals, low cytokine production, and T cell exhaustion.[28] As a co-inhibitory receptor, programmed death 1 (PD-1) is known to be involved in the immune response to infection, particularly chronic viral infection, and attenuate T cell activation by transducing co-inhibitory signaling.

80 HCV and HBV protein replication in cells has been shown to ind

80 HCV and HBV protein replication in cells has been shown to induce ER stress response and release of calcium from the ER, which activates CREB (cyclic adenosine monophosphate response protein), likely through calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. CREB induces transcription of CRE element by binding the

promoter of protein phosphatase 2Ac (PP2Ac), an important phosphatase involved in cell ABT-263 molecular weight cycle regulation, carcinogenesis, and apoptosis.81 HCV core constructs trigger hyperexpression of GRP78/BiP, GRP 94, calreticulin, and ER calcium adenosine triphosphatase, inducing ER stress response. This results in CHOP/GADD153 overexpression and Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis.82 Recent in vivo studies by Selleckchem Caspase inhibitor electron microscopy and western blot analysis on human liver biopsy tissue in individuals infected with HCV support the existence of hepatic ER stress by showing activation of the three ER stress sensors ATF-6, IRE1, and PERK in chronic HCV infection.83

Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed no significant induction of UPR-responsive genes. In contrast, genes involved in the control of diffuse processes such as liver proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis were significantly induced. In conclusion, livers from patients with untreated chronic hepatitis C exhibit in vivo hepatocyte ER stress response and activation of the three UPR sensors without apparent induction of UPR-responsive most genes. This lack of gene induction may be explained

by the inhibiting action of HCV (as suggested by in vitro studies).83 Sir et al. have demonstrated that HCV induces an incomplete autophagic response via activation of the UPR cascade. HCV transfection of Huh7.5 hepatocytes with HCV resulted in phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2; splicing of xbp1 RNA; and increased expression of ATF4, GRP78, and CHOP. Inhibition of PERK, IRE1, and ATF6 via small interfering RNA reduced HCV RNA levels by 80%-90%, indicating that ER stress response promotes viral replication. HCV induces the accumulation of autophagosomes by activating the UPR.84 Recent evidence suggests that HCV evades innate immunity by UPR-induced autophagy and repression of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-mediated innate immune response.85 Hepatitis B has also been shown to activate the UPR, via the HBx protein, to help promote HBV replication in liver cells and possibly contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The HBx protein induces UPR by activation of IRE1-XBP1 and the ATF6 pathways.86 Other viruses such as cytomegalovirus have also been shown to induce UPR signaling through the main three branches PERK, ATF6, and IRE-1, to favor viral replication.87 Thus, a complex picture emerges in viral infection in which viruses use the UPR to favor replication. It is, however, conceivable that very high levels of replication, particularly in immunocompromised settings, may lead to sufficient ER stress to induce apoptosis.

“Culturable microbial communities and diseases were compar

“Culturable microbial communities and diseases were compared in organic, integrated and conventional systems of winter wheat production and monoculture. Particular emphasis was placed on the density and diversity of cereal pathogens and their potential antagonists, and on the association of the active microbial populations with the health and productivity of wheat. In roots, rhizoplane and rhizosphere, fungi tended to be most abundant in the integrated

system or monoculture, and bacteria in the organic system. The dominant fungal groups (with individual frequency >5%) included root pathogens (Fusarium, Gibberella, Haematonectria and Ilyonectria) and known pathogen antagonists (Acremonium strictum, Clonostachys, Chaetomium, Roxadustat ic50 Gliocladium and Trichoderma

spp.). The 50 subdominant species (with individual frequency 1–5%) included the pathogens Alternaria, Cladosporium (leaf spot), Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all), Glomerella graminicola (anthracnose), Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Phoma spp. (leaf spots), and Pythium and Rhizoctonia (root rot). The 40 subrecedent species (with individual frequency <1%) included minor pathogens (Botrytis, Coniothyrium, Leptosphaeria). Antagonists 5-Fluoracil supplier in roots, rhizoplane and rhizosphere were most frequent in the organic system and least frequent in monoculture, suggesting that these systems had the most and least disease-suppressive habitats, respectively. The other two systems were intermediate, with microbial

communities suggesting that the conventional system produced a slightly more suppressive environment than the integrated system. The highest grain yield, in the integrated system, was associated with high abundance Tangeritin of fungi, including fungal pathogens, lowest abundance of Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas and Streptomyces in roots, rhizoplane and soil, and relatively high stem-base and leaf disease severity. The lowest grain yields, in the organic system and monoculture, were associated with less abundant fungi and more abundant Pseudomonas. There is no clear indication that yields were affected by diseases. “
“Transgenic tomato plants expressing full-length (CPV1) and truncated coat protein (CP) gene (CPV2) of Tomato leaf curl Taiwan virus (ToLCTWV) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed by PCR and Southern blotting and Northern analysis, respectively. Resistance was evaluated both in plants of T0 and T1 progenies using viruliferous whiteflies under two different inoculum pressures (10–15 and 40–50 whiteflies/plant). Upon inoculation with ToLCTWV using viruliferous whiteflies, various levels of phenotypic reaction were observed. No complete resistance was observed in any of the plants tested.

Moreover, the distribution pattern of colorectal adenoma and CRC

Moreover, the distribution pattern of colorectal adenoma and CRC among Chinese

patients is different from that of Western patients, and more colorectal lesions were located in the distal part of colon. The mean age of diagnosis of distal or proximal CRC was not significantly different between males and females (distal CRC: 61.7 vs 58.8 years, P = 0.199; proximal CRC: 60 vs 62.5 years, P = 0.281, respectively). Overall, the age of patients with distal or proximal CRC was not significantly different (60.6 vs 60.9 years, P = 0.816). AP24534 Our data also show that left-sided CRC was prevalent in both young and elderly patients (Table 7). This is not in line with some reports, which demonstrated that right-sided CRC is predominant in elderly people.13,22 Since the proximal shift reported by Ottenheimer et al. in 1955,23 some studies, mainly US studies, have suggested a distal-to-proximal shift of colorectal adenoma and/or CRC over the past few decades,4–9 whereas others have shown no change in colorectal lesion distribution.10–14 So it is still controversial whether there has been a shift in the anatomic distribution of CRC with time. Interestingly, several recent studies all suggested that a proximal shift in the subsite distribution of CRC occurred in Japan. Takada et al.19

analyzed the time trend of CRC in Japan between 1974 and 1994, Talazoparib mw and found there was an increase in the percentage of right-sided colon cancer, together with a continuous decline in the percentage of rectal cancer in both sexes at all ages. Toyoda et al.18 showed that the age-adjusted incidence rates of right colon cancer among men and women increased after reviewing the data from the Osaka Cancer Registry between 1974 and 2003. Yamaji et al.17 examined a total of 23 444 consecutive, asymptomatic Japanese who underwent total colonoscopy and found that adenomas

on the right-side colon increased with aging. On the contrary, a few Asian studies, based on the Chinese population, SPTLC1 did not confirm the left-to-right shift of CRC, for example, Huang and co-workers16 investigated the time trends in subsite distribution and the incidence rate of CRC among Chinese in Singapore between 1968 and 1992; in that study, it was revealed that although the incidence rates have increased greatly, no distal-to-proximal shift was observed among ethnic Chinese in Singapore over the past 25 years. Goh and colleagues also confirmed that the majority of colorectal tumors were located in the left side of colon in 3404 patients undergoing colonoscopy from 1999 to 2003,15 and the majority of those patients were Chinese. The results of the present study are consistent with those Chinese population-based Asian studies and clearly indicate that such left-to-right shifts had not occurred in Chinese yet; moreover, 54.

This study characterizes the allelic and haplotype frequencies, g

This study characterizes the allelic and haplotype frequencies, genetic diversity, population differentiation and linkage disequilibrium of five microsatellites (F8Int1, F8Int13, F8Int22, F8Int25.3 and IKBKG) in samples of healthy individuals from São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul and Pernambuco and of patients from São Paulo with haemophilia A to determine the degree of informativeness of these microsatellites for diagnostic purposes. The interpopulational diversity parameters highlight the differences U0126 clinical trial among the analyzed population samples. Regional differences

in allelic frequencies must be taken into account when conducting indirect diagnosis of haemophilia A. With the exception of IKBKG, all of the microsatellites presented high heterozygosity levels. Using the markers described, diagnosis was possible in 10 of 11 families. The F8Int22, F8Int1, Small Molecule Compound Library F8Int13, F8Int25.3 and IKBKG microsatellites were informative in seven, six, five and two of the cases, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of using these microsatellites in prenatal diagnosis and in carrier identification in the Brazilian population. “
“Prophylaxis has become the standard mantra of care for those individuals with severe haemophilia A and B.

Primary prophylaxis is advocated to prevent the occurrence of symptomatic acute spontaneous haemarthroses and to preserve joint structure and function. Typically, twice

or thrice weekly infusions of factor VIII or IX concentrates are integral to this treatment approach. Secondary prophylaxis is initiated after the relentless cycle of progressive joint damage has been triggered by prior haemarthroses and is intended to preserve existing joint health by preventing additional spontaneous bleeding events. Event-driven prophylaxis involves the administration of clotting factor concentrates to prevent acute traumatic bleeds, which are anticipated to occur in association with surgical or physical Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase trauma. This regimen enhances the effectiveness of primary or secondary prophylaxis protocols or on-demand approaches to replacement therapy. Besides the marked reduction in the so-called annual bleed rate, prophylaxis regimens frequently increase personal self-confidence to embark on a more active and physical lifestyle; however, in reality, prophylaxis must be individualized in accordance with bleeding phenotypes, with the unique pharmacokinetic profile of administered replacement clotting factor concentrates, with the specific clinical scenario, and with the degree of intensity anticipated for any physical activity.

5 (3) cattle Of the total, 33% of buffaloes and 43% of cattle we

5 (3) cattle. Of the total, 33% of buffaloes and 43% of cattle were productive adult females in that year. Only four buffaloes and one cow per family were productive. Most of the livestock kills recorded were of adults with high market value – buffalo 10 000–30 000 rupees; cow 2000–8000 rupees. Livestock predation thus causes considerable economic loss contributing to 60% of annual livestock mortality. Therefore, losses incurred due to predation are compensated by the Gujarat Forest Department at rates calculated and revised Cell Cycle inhibitor periodically to reduce disparity

between market price of animal lost and compensation offered. In spite of this the instant financial incentive provided by monetary compensation to help reduce impact of loss due to predation, the cultural implications and emotional costs cannot be accounted for (Macdonald & Sillero-Zubiri, 2002). Therefore, people’s tolerance of livestock losses cannot be sustained by monetary compensation mechanisms alone. Human–carnivore conflict, particularly due to livestock predation is a global issue with no permanent solution. Based on our study, much of this

conflict Selleck HIF inhibitor is outside Gir PA, in private lands where neither livestock nor the owners can be moved or resettled. Improved husbandry practices based on ecological information on lion’s diet such as prey preference and time of attack in combination with the suggested livestock management practices and monetary compensation would be required for the continued positive attitude of local communities and long-term lion conservation. This project was funded by the Wildlife Institute of India. We are grateful to the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India and Chief Wildlife Warden of Gujarat for permissions and facilitation. We would like to thank K. Bannerjee and field assistants, Biku, Taju, Ismail & Guga for helping in field data collection. We thank Vinod Thakur for guiding and helping with laboratory work. We are grateful to Shomita Mukherjee Manoj Nair, Mathew Hayward and unknown referee for critical comments and help with improving the paper. “
“The objective definition of geographic regions based

on biotic criteria is useful for summarizing biodiversity as well as for predicting the geographically differential effects of general trends and for planning an adequate DNA ligase distribution of the protected areas. We propose a regionalization of the Ibero-Balearic area based on butterfly presence–absence data and a synthesis of several clustering methods (similarity, parsimony analysis and multivariate techniques), and characterize the sub-regions on the basis of diagnostic species. Seven regions are proposed. The results showed two basic gradients, which apparently lead the butterfly species distributions within the study area: a north-east–south-west one, related to altitude and species richness, and a west–east one, implying a humidity or lithologic gradient.

However, hanging from a thread is often, for the P  labiata femal

However, hanging from a thread is often, for the P. labiata female, also a step in her predatory sequence. Often, while on this thread, the female attacks the male by suddenly and violently swinging around with her fangs extended and with her legs scooping towards the male. When the male’s Luminespib concentration fleeing response is too slow, he becomes the female’s next meal. These predatory attacks

may come before or during copulation. Sexual cannibalism’ (Elgar, 1992; Schneider & Lubin, 1998) would be a conventional term for these instances of a P. labiata female preying on a conspecific male. However, we wish to avoid simply filing away this example with a familiar label. We will instead emphasize that, for female Opaganib molecular weight P. labiata, an aggressive mimicry strategy is thoroughly entangled with a mating strategy. Comparing P. labiata’s male–female encounters with the encounters between P. fimbriata and Euryattus might be instructive.

By using signals that simulate Euryattus male courtship, females of P. fimbriata control the behaviour of female Euryattus, and this assists P. fimbriata with preying on Euryattus. This has close parallels with P. labiata, except now the prey is conspecific. By making specialized signals, female P. labiata control the behaviour of male P. labiata, and this assists female P. labiata with preying on male P. labiata. When there is no mating, we might say an unreceptive female has mimicked the signals normally made by receptive females. However, the distinction between receptive and unreceptive females, and between honest and deceitful signals, can be ambiguous because P. labiata females sometimes make swinging attacks on males even while mating. For P. labiata, there are various potential ways in which sexual selection might be entangled with predation. If a male is killed after he has initiated mating, then we could consider the possibility 4��8C that being eaten by the female benefits the male because,

in these instances, a consequence of being killed is that he provides the mother of his future offspring with a meal. When an adult female kills a male without first mating with him, entanglement between mating and predatory strategies might still be relevant because, besides gaining a meal, the female also, rather emphatically, rejects the male as a potential father for her offspring. A hypothesis we might entertain is that a female benefits from mating with a male that survives her attack because males that can demonstrate capacity to evade lethal female behaviour contribute good genes to the female’s offspring. However, mature females are not the only females that practise specialized predation on males. Subadult females (i.e. juveniles that are one moult short of maturity) are similar in size to adult P. labiata females, but they are physically incapable of mating and yet, like adult females, they actively display at conspecific males.

01; Fisher exact) All 61 (two consecutive pregnancies for one wo

01; Fisher exact). All 61 (two consecutive pregnancies for one woman) tenofovir exposed babies were born alive. One delivered prematurely at 34

weeks. One had unilateral deafness considered unrelated. There were no other congenital abnormalities. Mean birth weight, length and head circumference were no different to historical controls. All 34 tested babies are HBsAg negative at 9 months; three babies lost to follow up; one unable to be bled; one mother unwilling to consent and the remaining 21 babies are younger than nine months. Conclusion: Tenofovir in this setting achieved better viral suppression than lamivudine. Rate of gastrointestinal intolerance was surprising. No perinatal transmission suggests efficacy of tenofovir when compared to expected rate in this high risk population. Infant growth KU-60019 purchase parameters and congenital abnormality data were reassuring. H CAI,1 X MA,1 R LI,2 J CHIU,3 D XU1 1Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 2Bristol-Myers Squibb, Beijing, China, 3Bristol-Myers Squibb, Shanghai, China Introduction: Long-term treatment

of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs) is often required to achieve a maintained response, but this could impact on fertility/pregnancy. Entecavir, a potent NUC for treatment of CHB, is classified by the FDA as pregnancy category C. Limited data are available on the impact of long-term entecavir therapy on pregnancy outcomes among male CHB patients. Methods: This single-centre retrospective survey assessed the safety of long-term entecavir therapy on pregnancy outcomes among Chinese male CHB patients who fathered click here children while receiving entecavir (0.5 or 1.0 mg daily) during the entecavir phase II/III studies ETV-012, ETV-023 and ETV-056, and the roll-over study ETV-050. Results: Patients were enrolled between 2002 and 2004, and followed-up until March 2012. Of the 39 male patients, 16 fathered children while on entecavir treatment and were included in this analysis; 18 children were born over the 9 years of follow-up, Immune system all reported

as unplanned pregnancies. At baseline, the mean age was 28 ± 3.7 years, 14 patients were HBeAg(+), and 2 patients were HBeAg(–). All 16 patients received 1.0 mg entecavir, which was administered over a mean duration of 4 years (range 1–8 years). Twelve children were born to fathers who had been treated for 4 or more years. The mean birth weight was 3317 ± 390 grams. There were no cases of low birth weight, birth abnormalities, or congenital disorders. Based on the treating physicians’ assessment, none of the children demonstrated any evidence of cognitive or developmental delays. Conclusion: Within this cohort, for male CHB patients fathering children while on long-term entecavir treatment (even at the 1.0 mg daily) no birth defects, congenital abnormalities, or cognitive/developmental delays of the offspring were observed.