Each habitat is connected on both sides to separate inlet holes by 3.1 mm long, 5 μm wide and 5 μm deep inlet channels (Figure 1A). Habitats are separated by 200 μm of solid silicon and are sealed on the top with a PDMS layer, ensuring that there is no liquid
AZD2014 manufacturer connection between different habitats. Type 2 Each device consists of five habitats sharing a single inlet (Figure 1B). A 25 μm wide, 2.6 mm long and 5 μm deep this website inlet channel branches in five 5 μm wide, 9 mm long and 5 μm deep channels which connect all five habitats to a single inlet hole (Figure 1B). Except for the shared inlet there is no liquid connection between the five habitats. Type 3 Each device consists of two independent sets of two diffusionally coupled habitats (Figure 5A). Each set consists of two habitats (i.e. top and bottom habitat) separated by 15 μm that are coupled by 200 nm deep nanoslits of 15 × 15 μm2 that are spaced 5 μm apart (Figure 5A). These nanoslits allow for the diffusion of chemicals but are too thin for cells to swim through , thereby confining cells to a single habitat. The top and bottom habitats are both connected to independent inlet holes by 5 μm wide, 3.5 mm long and 5 μm deep inlet channels. Type 4 Identical to type 1, except that only the outer two habitats are used (Additional file 10B). The three inner habitats are completely sealed off, creating a separation of 1.2 mm between
the two habitats. Type 5 Identical to type 1, except that the central https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ars-1620.html habitat (habitat 3) is sealed off. Device preparation and imaging conditions Microfabricated devices were filled with LB medium containing 1 mM IPTG. Habitats were inoculated by pipetting 3 μl of initial culture onto an inlet hole. Excess medium was let to evaporate and the inlet holes were subsequently sealed with PDMS. Lastly, a glass coverslip was applied to cover the back of the device. Inlet holes are inoculated with approximately 105 cells (assuming that cells from the
excess medium do not enter the inlet hole). The devices were imaged at 26°C. The culture medium is not refreshed after sealing the device; therefore the use of a rich medium is required to others sustain a sufficient increase in population size. We still observe cells swimming through the habitats four days after inoculation. Furthermore, the location of the boundary between the two populations fronts shifts over time. Together this strongly suggests that nutrients are not fully depleted after the initial colonization of the device and that most of the fluorescence signal observed during the first 18 h originates from living cells. Experimental scheme The experimental scheme for the main datasets is summarized in Additional file 11. Type-1 devices (6 devices, 24 habitats): On each day a single device was imaged; all habitats on the same device were inoculated from a single set of initial cultures (Devices 1–6, Additional file 11). The kymographs of all successfully invaded habitats are shown in Additional file 2.