Hence, BAFF preferentially drives the expansion of Th1 and Th17 pathways, consistent with previous findings that BAFF augments Th1-associated inflammatory responses. The influence of BAFF on immunoglobulin CSR occurs by TACI receptors, and impaired TACI
upregulation contributes to hyperactivity of B cells and cancer development. Thus, high BAFF levels are pointed out in various malignant diseases. In addition to BAFF receptors, autocrine and paracrine factors that promote tumour cell survival are also involved in malignant processes . Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the production of autoantibodies against self-antigens via the loss of B-cell tolerance. Although the factors that promote the loss of tolerance are still not sufficiently known, BAFF clearly plays a role in autoimmune diseases. Elevated levels of BAFF were thus Deforolimus cell line shown in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such Target Selective Inhibitor Library solubility dmso as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s syndrome, rheumatoid
arthritis, systemic sclerosis, mixed cryoglobulinaemia, myasthenia gravis and coeliac disease as well as in organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), bullous pemphigoid and localized scleroderma [7, 20–27]. In vivo administration of recombinant BAFF in mice promotes B-cell survival, expansion and differentiation, whereas BAFF transgenic mice develop hypergammaglobulinemia, proteinuria, vasculitis and lupus-like disorders. These mice had enlarged spleen, lymph nodes and glomeruli with increased circulating immune complexes, rheumatoid factors, anti-nuclear and anti-histone autoantibodies . These features are also observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. When BAFF transgenic mice get older, they develop a condition similar to Sjögren’s syndrome in humans characterized
by enlarged salivary glands and reduced saliva production as a consequence of acinar cell destruction . In human studies, increased serum levels of BAFF were correlated with titres of anti-dsDNA, rheumatoid factor and anti-SSA/RO antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid Gemcitabine price arthritis and Sjögren’s syndrome [4, 5, 20, 29]. By immunohistochemical analysis, Jonsson et al.  were able to detect BAFF on infiltrating cells in the salivary gland tissue from patients with Sjögren’s syndrome, and these patients also had markedly increased the levels of BAFF in their serum, suggesting the importance of BAFF signalling in disease pathogenesis. BAFF can be measured in all body fluids. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, concentrations of BAFF in synovial fluids were much higher than in corresponding blood samples . Also, BAFF levels were significantly correlated with monocyte, neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers in the synovial fluid, suggesting the local production of BAFF by the inflammatory cells.