2 years Of the 570 patients, six could not commence Peg-IFN ther

2 years. Of the 570 patients, six could not commence Peg-IFN therapy, despite their admission, because PF-04929113 of dental problems such as periodontitis, pupitis, and pericoronitis. The ages of six whose dental problems delayed the initiation of Peg-IFN ranged from 25 to 67 years, with a mean age of 47.3 +/- 15.2 years. IFN therapy was deferred for 61.3 +/- 47.7 days. Among the six subjects for whom IFN treatment was delayed,

only one had a salivary flow that was lower than the normal value.\n\nConclusions: Treatment of dental infections is required before IFN therapy for HCV infection can be started. To increase the depth of understanding of oral health care, it is hoped that dentists and medical specialists in all areas will hold discussions to generate cooperation.”
“A primary plant cell wall network was computationally modeled using the finite element approach to study the hypothesis of hemicellulose (HC) tethering with the cellulose microfibrils (CMFs) as one of the major load-bearing mechanisms of the growing cell wall. A computational primary cell wall network fragment (10 x 10 mu m) comprising typical compositions and properties of CMFs and HC was modeled with well-aligned

CMFs. The tethering of HC to CMFs is modeled in accordance with the strength of the hydrogen bonding by implementing a specific load-bearing connection (i.e. the joint element). The introduction of the CMF-HC interaction to the computational cell wall network model is a key to the quantitative examination

Elafibranor chemical structure of the mechanical consequences of cell wall structure models, including the tethering HC model. When the cell wall network models with and without joint elements were compared, the hydrogen bond exhibited a significant contribution to the overall stiffness of the cell wall network fragment. When the cell wall network model was stretched 1% in the transverse direction, the tethering of CMF-HC via hydrogen bonds was not strong Rigosertib order enough to maintain its integrity. When the cell wall network model was stretched 1% in the longitudinal direction, the tethering provided comparable strength to maintain its integrity. This substantial anisotropy suggests that the HC tethering with hydrogen bonds alone does not manifest sufficient energy to maintain the integrity of the cell wall during its growth (i.e. other mechanisms are present to ensure the cell wall shape).”
“The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of IT on lung function power (P) and oxygen uptake (VO2) at peak performance (peak) and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) in CF patients who were unable to participate in a standard exercise program (SEP) and to compare these IT responses with corresponding effects in CF patients performing SEP. 20 patients (FEV1 25.5 +/- 7.5%; pred; SpO2 < 90% at rest or P lower than 0.3 W/kg) who were unable to participate in SEP were allocated to IT (5 x 20 min weekly). 23 patients (FEV1 31.6 +/- 4.2%; p < 0.05) did 5 x 45 min per week of SEP.

Y(2)O(3) nanocrystals (YO NC) doped

Y(2)O(3) nanocrystals (YO NC) doped

check details in situ with fluorescent (Eu(3+)) and paramagnetic (Gd(3+)) impurities and conjugated with a potential cancer targeting ligand, folic acid (FA), were prepared using an all-aqueous wet-chemical process. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of these multifunctional nanocrystals were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, photoluminescence and magnetization studies. Highly monodisperse nanocrystals of size similar to 20 nm with cubic bixbyite crystal structure showed bright red-fluorescence when doped with Eu(3+). Co-doping with Gd(3+) and mild air drying resulted significantly enhanced fluorescence quantum efficiency of similar to 60% together with paramagnetic functionality, enabling T(1)-weighted MR contrast with similar to 5 times higher spin-lattice relaxivity compared to the clinically used Gd(3+) contrast agent. Cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen stress studies show no toxicity by YO NC in both normal and cancer cells up to higher doses of 500 mu M and longer incubation time, 48 h. Cancer targeting

capability of FA conjugated NCs was demonstrated on www.selleckchem.com/products/mek162.html folate receptor positive (FR+) human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (KB) with FR depressed KB (FRd) and FR negative (FR-) lung cancer cells A549 as controls. Fluorescence microscopy and flow-cytometry data show highly specific binding and cellular uptake of large concentration of FA conjugated NCs on FR+ve cells compared to the controls. Thus, the present study reveals, unique bi-modal contrast imaging capability, non-toxicity and cancer targeting capability of multiple impurities doped rare-earth

oxide nanocrystals that can find promising application in molecular imaging. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mechanisms that bring about coordination of cell growth and cell division in different organisms are biological events not yet clearly revealed. In maize, insulin effector of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-target of rapamycin (TOR) signal transduction pathway in metazoan or an intrinsic maize growth factor similar to insulin has shown to regulate cell growth. CA3 research buy This research has been undertaken to analyze the role of PI3K-TOR signal transduction pathway in maintaining coordinated regulation of cell growth and cell division in maize tissues. Results indicate that DNA synthesis as well as mitotic index increased in maize callus in vitro cultures after insulin or maize factor stimulation. Biomass and ribosomal protein synthesis also showed significant increment after this stimulation, and the cell morphology composition of the cultures drastically changed. Two proteins related to cell cycle, D-type cyclins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were selectively synthesized under these conditions.

The results indicate that sons of alcoholics may be particularly<

The results indicate that sons of alcoholics may be particularly

vulnerable to poor self-regulatory GM6001 in vivo strategies and that early adolescence may be an important time for intervening with these families to facilitate higher self-regulation before the transition to high school.”
“We studied the diversity of dung beetle communities in Japanese pastures to identify the factors that maintain or enhance the diversity of dung beetles at a landscape scale. We surveyed dung beetles from 17 pastures located in the northeastern part of Tochigi Prefecture, which is in the center of mainland Japan. From 1999 to 2001, surveys were conducted during the 6-month grazing period (May to October) by using dung baited basket traps. We also collected information about the environmental conditions and pasture management practices. Twenty-five dung beetle species belonging to Geotrupinae, Scarabaeinae, and Aphodiinae (including 13 tunneler and 12 dweller species) were recorded. The abundance of dweller species decreased

with increasing elevation, possibly because of the effect of rainfall, whereas the species richness of tunneler species was affected by cattle disturbance and soil condition. www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk923295.html Beetle species richness significantly increased with the number of years that the pastures had been grazed. Ivermectin administration did not appear to have any adverse effect on dung beetle abundance, species richness, or species diversity. The dung beetle datasets of the current study (including specific tunneler and dweller beetle groups) supported the widely documented positive relationship P5091 between local abundance and species distribution ranges. The within pasture, within area, and between area hierarchical additive partitioning of regional total diversity indicated that landscape-scale management should be implemented

to conserve the regional diversity of the dung beetle communities inhabiting Japanese pastures.”
“The initiation and propagation of shear bands is an important mode of localized inhomogeneous deformation that occurs in a wide range of materials. In metallic glasses, shear band development is considered to center on a structural heterogeneity, a shear transformation zone that evolves into a rapidly propagating shear band under a shear stress above a threshold. Deformation by shear bands is a nucleation-controlled process, but the initiation process is unclear. Here we use nanoindentation to probe shear band nucleation during loading by measuring the first pop-in event in the load-depth curve which is demonstrated to be associated with shear band formation.

5 years, and 65% at 2 years and beyond In patients with lower ri

5 years, and 65% at 2 years and beyond. In patients with lower risk scores, cumulative survival reached 78% at 2 years and beyond.\n\nConclusions. The outcome of transapical aortic valve implantation in very high-risk patients was very favorable not only early

after the procedure but also later on. Preoperative risk scores were not indicators for early mortality but were for later mortality. Survival was mainly influenced by noncardiac (renal, pulmonary, and vascular) comorbidities as well as by signs of advanced cardiac failure. (Ann Thorac Surg 2011;92:1315-23) (C) 2011 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons”
“Background\n\nMethotrexate is routinely used in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. There have been concerns regarding the safety of using concurrent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), PFTα molecular weight including aspirin, or paracetamol (acetaminophen), or both, in these people.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo systematically appraise and summarise the scientific evidence on the safety of using NSAIDs, including aspirin, or paracetamol, or both, with methotrexate in inflammatory arthritis;

and to identify gaps in the current evidence, assess the implications of those gaps and to make recommendations for future research to address these deficiencies.\n\nSearch strategy\n\nWe searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled JNJ-26481585 datasheet Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, second quarter 2010); MEDLINE (from 1950); EMBASE (from 1980); the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). We also handsearched the conference proceedings for the American College of Rheumatology selleck (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) (2008 to 2009) and checked the websites of regulatory agencies for reported adverse events, labels and warnings.\n\nSelection criteria\n\nRandomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies comparing the safety of methotrexate alone to methotrexate with concurrent NSAIDs, including aspirin, or paracetamol, or both, in people with inflammatory arthritis.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nTwo

authors independently assessed the search results, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.\n\nMain results\n\nSeventeen publications out of 8681 identified studies were included in the review, all of which included people with rheumatoid arthritis using various NSAIDs, including aspirin. There were no identified studies for other forms of inflammatory arthritis.\n\nFor NSAIDs, 13 studies were included that used concurrent NSAIDs, of which nine studies examined unspecified NSAIDs. The mean number of participants was 150.4 (range 19 to 315), mean duration 2182.9 (range 183 to 5490) days, although the study duration was not always clearly defined, and the studies were mainly of low to moderate quality.

Improving adherence is important to subsequent treatment success

Improving adherence is important to subsequent treatment success.”
“Objective: To compare the long-term outcomes of surgical resection

and radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).\n\nSummary Background Data: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising, emerging therapy for small HCC. Whether it is as effective as surgical resection (RES) for long-term outcomes is still indefinite.\n\nMethods: Two hundred thirty HCC patients who met the Milan criteria and were suitable to be treated by either RES or RFA entered into a randomized controlled trial. The patients were regularly followed up after treatment for 5 years (except for those who died). The primary end point was overall survival; the secondary end points were recurrence-free survival, overall recurrence, and early-stage recurrence.\n\nResults: selleck kinase inhibitor The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year overall survival rates for the RFA group and the RES group were 86.96%, 76.52%, 69.57%,

66.09%, 54.78% and 98.26%, 96.52%, 92.17%, 82.60%, 75.65%, respectively. The corresponding recurrence-free survival Acalabrutinib ic50 rates for the 2 groups were 81.74%, 59.13%, 46.08%, 33.91%, 28.69% and 85.22%, 73.92%, 60.87%, 54.78%, 51.30%, respectively. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were significantly lower in the RFA group than in the RES group (P = 0.001 and P = 0.017). The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year overall recurrence rates were 16.52%, 38.26%, 49.57%, 59.13%, and 63.48% for the RFA group and 12.17%, 22.60%, 33.91%, 39.13%, and 41.74% for the RES group. The overall recurrence was higher in the RFA group than in the RES group (P = 0.024).\n\nConclusions: Surgical selleck chemicals resection may

provide better survival and lower recurrence rates than RFA for patients with HCC to the Milan criteria.”
“Background In the past three decades, the role of pharmacists has evolved toward working with other health professionals and the public in a patient-centered model of practice, which is called pharmaceutical care. This model has been implemented for most physical illnesses but in relation to mental health, pharmacists’ role is still evolving. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes, current practice, perceived barriers and training needs concerning pharmaceutical care for people with depression. Setting All pharmacists attending obligatory regional meetings of the Surplus Network (a Flemish community pharmacy chain) during April and May 2009. Method Written survey consisting of questions on (1) pharmacists’ attitude and current practice in depression care and pharmaceutical care for people with other illnesses; (2) potential barriers in providing pharmaceutical care for people with depression; and (3) training needs. Paired samples T tests and Wilcoxon-tests were used to analyze the data.

In this paper, a new research direction orthogonal to ABCD rules

In this paper, a new research direction orthogonal to ABCD rules that characterizes 3D local disruption of skin surfaces to realize automatic recognition of melanoma is described.\n\nMethods\n\nThis paper examines 3D differential forms of skin surfaces to characterize the local geometrical properties of melanoma. Firstly, 3D data of skin surfaces are obtained using a photometric stereo device. Then differential https://www.selleckchem.com/ALK.html forms of lesion surfaces are determined to describe the geometrical texture patterns involved. Using only

these geometrical features, a simple least-squared error-based linear classifier can be constructed to realize the classification of malignant melanomas and benign lesions.\n\nResults\n\nAs with the 3D data of 35 melanoma and 66 benign lesion samples collected from local pigmented lesion clinics, the optimal sensitivity and specificity of the constructed linear classifier are 71.4% and 86.4%, respectively. The total area enclosed by the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve is 0.823.\n\nConclusion\n\nThis study indicates that differential forms obtained from 3D data are very promising in characterizing melanoma. Combining these features with other skin features such as border irregularity

Sotrastaurin TGF-beta/Smad inhibitor and color variation might further improve the accuracy and reliability of the automatic diagnosis of melanoma.”
“Continuity of care requires good quality inter- and intra-professional communication (IIPC). Difficulties ensuring continuity often occur when care is given over a number of physically different locations and by different teams of health and social care professionals. Patients requiring specialist palliative care often require the services of several health and social care providers. Objective: To investigate patients’ perceptions and experiences of IIPC in a specialist palliative care (SPC) setting. Method: Qualitative in-depth audio-tape recorded interviews with 22 patients from 2 specialist palliative care units. Results: Patients were largely positive BMS-345541 molecular weight about their general care and experiences

and when explicit IIPC occurred and was shared with patients they were very appreciative. Some patients were uncertain and unable to be specific about the extent and nature of any IIPC relating to their situation. Patients’ accounts contained descriptions of relaying information between different professionals or locations of care. Some patients or family members were very proactive to enhance IIPC and continuity of care between different care providers. Conclusions: Examples of good IIPC practice described by participants are shared here. The involvement of patients and family/carers within IIPC and planning continuity of care is important, but the nature and extent of IIPC is not always clear to patients and family/carers.

Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering reveale

Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering revealed that the particles are spherical in shape, have a size distribution between 220 and 840 nm of diameter, and have a tendency to aggregate confirmed by a zeta potential between -3.2 and +3.5 mV. Using this method the loading efficiency was 26% for trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)(2) and 32% for [Ru(NO)(Hedta)]. The release of the complexes from the NPs shows that cyclam-NP and Hedta-NP exhibited a two-phase exponential association release pattern, which was characterized by an initial complex burst during the first 24 h, followed by a slower release phase complex profile, due to a few pores observed in surface

of nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the nitrosyl complexes in solution and incorporated buy CHIR-99021 in PLGA nanoparticles on melanoma cancer cells (cell line B16-F10) was investigated. The lower cytotoxicity of trans-[RuCl(cyclam)(NO)](2+) (12.4 +/- 2.6%) and [Ru(NO)(Hedta)] (4.0 +/- 2.7%) in solution compared to that of trans-[Ru(NO)(NH3)(4)py](3+) (46.1 +/- 6.4%) is consistent with

the rate constant release of NO of these complexes (k(-NO) = 6.2 x 10(-4) s(-1), 2.0 x 10(-3) s(-1), and 6.0 x 10(-2) s(-1), respectively); the cytotoxicities are also inhibited in the presence of the NO Selleck AG-881 scavenger carboxy-PTIO. The phototoxicity of these complexes is due to NO release, which lead to 53.8 +/- 6.2% of cell death in the. presence of trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)(2) and 22.3 +/- 5.1% in the presence of [Ru(NO)(Hedta)]. The PLGA nanoparticles loaded with trans-[Ru(NO)Cl(cyclam)](PF6)(2) and [Ru(NO)(Hedta)] exerted in vitro a reduced activity against melanoma cells when compared to the activity of complex in solution (nonentrapped in nanoparticles). Blank PLGA nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxicity. In the presence of light and of ruthenium nitrosyl complexes or cyclam-NP and Hedta-NP, B16-F10 cells displayed a considerable

damage of the surface with rupture of the plasma Fosbretabulin membrane. This behavior is an indicative of the efficiency of the DDS to deliver the NO from the entrapped complex when photoinduced.”
“OBJECTIVE To review our experiences with management of symptomatic ureteral calculi complicating pregnancy.\n\nMETHODS Between January 2001 and December 2011, 57 pregnant women were treated for symptomatic ureteral stones. The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively.\n\nRESULTS The mean patient age was 24 (range 17-37) years and gestational age at presentation was 26 weeks (range 12-38). Most of the cases (60%) occurred in the third trimester. Flank pain was the most common presenting symptom (90%). Ultrasonography was the initial test confirming diagnosis. With conservative management, spontaneous passing of stones was noted in 13 cases (22.8%). In 10 patients (17.5%), symptomatic relief occurred without spontaneous passing of stones until the end of pregnancy.

The long-term treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p o ), a posit

The long-term treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), a positive control, was also able to increase the GSH levels in the hippocampus, but failed to alter the activity of both enzymes. Besides the specific antidepressant-like effect, long-term, but not the acute treatment with a-T, especially in the doses that produced an antidepressant-like effect (10 mg/kg), improved the antioxidant

defenses in the mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, two structures closely implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) dispersed with Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticles were synthesized in a technique requiring a single step by a gas-injected arc-in-water method using Pd-Ni-C mixed powders charged THZ1 in an anode hole. It was found that the Ni/Pd weight ratio in the alloy nanoparticles dispersed in the products uniquely depended on the initial Ni/Pd weight ratio; Pd in the products was enriched by a factor of two when the Ni/Pd weight ratio in the initial mixture was higher than 0.1, while Selleck Navitoclax Ni was enriched at

a Ni/Pd weight ratio below this threshold. The average diameter of alloy nanoparticles increased with the initial weight of the metallic components, while the average diameter of the discrete forms of the SWCNH aggregates exhibited the opposite Stattic purchase tendency. Increasing the amount of the metallic compounds in the initial mixed powders caused the enrichment of Pd. The effect of adding Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticles into the products on the carbonaceous structures of SWCNHs was not detected by Raman analysis. The sensitivities of H-2 sensors using the SWCNHs dispersed with Ni, Pd, and Pd-Ni alloy nanoparticles were compared, and the sensitivity of the sensor using the Pd-Ni alloy was the highest. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://0-dx.doi.org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.1063/1.4745045]“

data on the proper way to establish the preauricular incision (PAI) line and manage skin tension during lifting are limited. Undoubtedly, proper tissue handling represents a true challenge during a lifting procedure and is a crucial step in avoiding disfiguration. The authors describe their approach to PAI demarcation and local skin tension management performed in 165 cases since 2007.\n\nLevel of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors at http://metis.findlay.edu:2886/00266.”
“The development of a metrological protocol in order to enhance traceability in speciation analysis of selenium is presented.

“Previous studies concerning ultrasound evaluation of the

“Previous studies concerning ultrasound evaluation of the seminal vesicles (SV) were performed on a limited series of subjects, and considered few parameters, often only before ejaculation and without assessing the patients sexual abstinence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the volume and the emptying characteristics of the SV and their possible correlations with scrotal and transrectal ultrasound features.\n\nThe SV of 368 men seeking medical care for couple infertility were evaluated by ultrasound. All patients underwent, during the same ultrasound

session, scrotal and transrectal evaluation, before and after ejaculation, PLX3397 and the ejaculate was subjected to semen analysis. A new parameter, SV ejection fraction, calculated as: [(SV volume before ejaculation SV volume after ejaculation)/SV volume before ejaculation] 100, was evaluated.\n\nAfter adjusting for sexual abstinence and age, both pre-ejaculatory SV volume and SV ejection fraction were positively associated with ejaculate volume. As assessed by receiver selleck kinase inhibitor operating characteristic curve, a cut-off for SV ejection fraction of 21.6 discriminates subjects with normal ejaculate volume (epsilon 1.5 ml) and pH (epsilon 7.2 ml) with both sensitivity and specificity equal to 75. Subjects with SV ejection fraction of 21.6 more often had a higher post-ejaculatory SV volume and ejaculatory

duct abnormalities. Furthermore, a higher post-ejaculatory SV volume was associated with a higher prostate volume and SV abnormalities. Higher epididymal and deferential diameters were also detected in subjects with a higher post-ejaculatory SV volume or reduced SV ejection fraction. No association between SV and testis ultrasound features or sperm parameters was observed. Associations with SV ejection fraction were confirmed in nested 1:1 casecontrol analysis.\n\nThe SV contribute

significantly to the ejaculate volume. A new parameter, SV ejection fraction, could be useful in assessing SV emptying. A SV ejection fraction of 21.6 was associated with prostatevesicular and epididymal ultrasound abnormalities.”
“Background: Seven genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been published in AIDS, and only associations in the HLA region on chromosome selleck chemical 6 and CXCR6 have passed genome-wide significance.\n\nMethods: We reanalyzed the data from 3 previously published GWAS, targeting specifically low-frequency SNPs (minor allele frequency <5%). Two groups composed of 365 slow progressors and 147 rapid progressors from Europe and the United States were compared with a control group of 1394 seronegative individuals using Eigenstrat corrections.\n\nResults: Of the 8584 SNPs with minor allele frequency <5% in cases and controls (Bonferroni threshold = 5.8 x 10(-6)), 4 SNPs showed statistical evidence of association with the slow progressor phenotype. The best result was for HCP5 rs2395029 [P = 8.54 x 10(-15), odds ratio (OR) = 3.

Taken together, these facts suggest that activation of RF-produci

Taken together, these facts suggest that activation of RF-producing lymphocytes in CIA model occurs through IAI interactions with anti-BCII lymphocytes.\n\nThree populations of antibodies

were detected in the blood of arthritic rats: a population of antibodies reacting only with BCII, a population of antibodies reacting only with rat collagen (RCII) and a population of antibodies that can bind to both bovine and rat collagen. It was shown that RF in relation to anti-collagen autoantibodies act as anti-idiotype antibodies, and a comparative selleck compound analysis of antibody production in arthritic and resistant rats demonstrated that the level of anti-collagen autoantibody production depends on the level of RF production. This suggests that RF and RF-producing lymphocytes are involved in regulation of anti-collagen autoreactive lymphocyte activity through an IAI interaction mechanism. A direct activation of autoreactive anti-RCII lymphocytes by BCII cannot be excluded, but it can be supposed that induction of anti-collagen autoreactive lymphocytes needs a signal generated in IAI interactions by RF-producing lymphocytes. This hypothesis is based on the data obtained, and not only explains the mechanism

of autoreactive lymphocytes activation in the rat CIA model, but also indicates that the key regulatory element in the development of arthritis in animals is RF-producing lymphocytes. The results allow a new insight on the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/epoxomicin-bu-4061t.html role of RF in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and on seeking more effective therapeutic Dinaciclib chemical structure means. (C) 2009 Elsevier

GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“Poliomyelitis is a disease of major public health importance. Since the launch of the Global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative in 1988, considerable progress has been achieved globally. At present, the causative agent for the disease – poliovirus – remains endemic in only four countries (Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan). The poliovirus eradication plan, as outlined in the WHO strategic plan for 2004-2008, incorporates priority activities for each phase of the plan: (i) polio eradication certification for regions, (ii) oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation phase, and (iii) post-OPV phase. The ultimate goal to eventually stop all vaccination is, however, jeopardized by the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses and the risk of bioterrorism. In the post-eradication era, individual countries will be presented with guidelines on OPV cessation and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) usage. This paper, presented during the Asian Pacific Pediatric Association (APPA) meeting in Pattaya, Thailand from 20 to 22 July 2006, provides an update on the current global situation, focusing on the progress and challenges faced by different countries in their quest for poliovirus eradication. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.