Artificial light disturbs this activity. Community changes arising Oligomycin A mw from light pollution may have knock on effects for ecosystem functions ( Gliwicz, 1986 and Gliwicz, 1999). Even remote areas can still be exposed to sky glow. Along the expanding front of suburbanization,
light may spill into wetlands and estuaries that are often the last open spaces in, or close to, cities ( Longcore and Rich, 2004). Perhaps surprisingly, light pollution penetrates into deep ocean environments (Kochevar, 1998). Here, only very dim, homochromatic, down light is available, supplemented by bioluminescence from marine organisms. Most inhabitants possess highly specialized visual systems, which are incredibly sensitive to even minute amounts of light. This renders these organisms extremely vulnerable to damage associated with bright artificial lights of manned and unmanned submersible vehicles (Kochevar, 1998). The current efforts to deal with the oil well disaster in the Gulf of Mexico PI3K Inhibitor Library cell assay has revealed the extent to which light pollution can occur in the deep sea, albeit that the effects are secondary to the effects of oil pollution in this case. There is a widely held, but incorrect belief that organisms living in caves (whether under the sea or under
land masses) do not come into contact with light and are therefore insensitive to it. However, as with deep sea creatures, many cave dwelling organisms are bioluminescent and are exquisitely sensitive to any ambient light and light pollution. Most if not all, cave dwelling organisms and others living remotely from daylight, evolved from organisms that at one time dwelt in the light and hence retain vestiges of light sensing systems. Over the last ca. 150 years there has been an exponential increase in the use of artificial light to illuminate the night. This trend continues to this day. On land, street lights, lighting in office buildings and homes, and floodlit sports facilities, industrial complexes, etc., are the sources which inadvertently introduce light into nature (RCEP,
2009). In coastal areas, where many of our major cities such as Mumbai, Shanghai, Alexandria, Miami, New York City and London are located, long stretches of the shoreline are strongly illuminated. Indeed, light pollution of shallow seas has become a global phenomenon (Elvidge et al., Etofibrate 1997). There are at least 3351 cities in the coastal zones around the world shedding light onto beaches and into sublittoral areas. In Asia, 18 of the region’s 20 largest cities are located on the coast, on river banks or in deltas. Even in Africa where the availability of electric lighting is sometimes limited, coastal light pollution is emitted from major cities such as Abidjan, Accra, Algiers, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dakar, Dar es Salaam, Djibouti, Durban, Freetown, Lagos, Luanda, Maputo, Mombasa, Port Louis and Tunis (UN-HABITAT, 2009).