Those actions, however, were probably the result of an indirect a

Those actions, however, were probably the result of an indirect action with other substrates (glucose) and/or hormones since in vitro experiments did not provide similar results for those parameters. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We have estimated SCH727965 chemical structure the hydration free energy for 20 neutral drug-like molecules, as well as for three series of 6-11 inhibitors to avidin, factor Xa, and galectin-3 with four different continuum solvent approaches

(the polarised continuum method the Langevin dipole method, the finite-difference solution of the Poisson equation, and the generalised Born method), and several variants of each, giving in total 24 different methods. All four types of methods have been thoroughly calibrated for a number of experimentally known small organic molecules with a mean absolute deviation (MAD) of 1-6 kJ/mol for neutral molecules and 4-30 kJ/mol for ions. However, for the drug-like molecules, the accuracy seems to be appreciably worse. The reason for this is that drug-like molecules are more polar than small organic molecules and that

the uncertainty of the methods is proportional to the size of the solvation energy. Therefore, the accuracy of continuum solvation methods should be discussed in relative, rather than absolute, terms. In fact, the mean unsigned relative deviations CA3 of the best solvation methods, 0.09 for neutral and 0.05 for ionic molecules, correspond to 2-20 kJ/mol absolute error for the drug-like molecules in this investigation, or 2-3,000 in terms of binding constants. Fortunately, the accuracy of all methods can be improved if only relative energies within a series of inhibitors are considered, especially if all of them have the same net charge. Then, all except two methods give

MADs of 2-5 kJ/mol (corresponding NVP-LDE225 in vitro to an uncertainty of a factor of 2-7 in the binding constant). Interestingly, the generalised Born methods typically give better results than the Poison-Boltzmann methods.”
“BACKGROUND: Blastomycosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. Although this disease primarily involves the lungs, the clinical spectrum of blastomycosis can range from subclinical infection to extrapulmonary dissemination. The central nervous system (CNS) form of blastomycosis is primarily treated with an amphotericin B formulation, but associated toxicities of this agent preclude its use in some patients. Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal that has emerged as a potential treatment option for CNS blastomycosis because of its excellent penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue.\n\nOBJECTIVE: To evaluate evidence for the use of voriconazole in the treatment of CNS blastomycosis.

“The outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has raised

“The outbreak of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has raised a global concern for both the animal as well as human health. Besides vaccination, that may not achieve full protection in certain groups of patients, inhibiting neuraminidase or the transmembrane protein M2 represents the main measure

of controlling the disease. Due to alarming emergence of influenza virus strains resistant to the currently available drugs, development of new neuraminidase N1 inhibitors is of utmost importance. The present paper provides an overview of the recent advances this website in the design of new antiviral drugs against avian influenza. It also reports findings in binding free energy calculations for nine neuraminidase N1 inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, and peramivir -carboxylate, -phosphonate, and -sulfonate) using the Linear Interaction Energy method. Molecular dynamics simulations of these inhibitors were performed in a free and two bound states the so called open and closed conformations of neuraminidase N1. Obtained results successfully reproduce the experimental binding affinities of find more the already known neuraminidase N1 inhibitors, i.e. peramivir being a stronger binder than zanamivir that is in turn stronger binder than oseltamivir, or phosphonate inhibitors being stronger binders than their carboxylate analogues. In addition, the newly proposed sulfonate inhibitors are predicted to

be the strongest binders – a fact to be confirmed by their chemical synthesis and a subsequent test of their biological activity. Finally, contributions of individual inhibitor moieties to the overall binding affinity are explicitly evaluated to assist further drug development towards inhibition of the H5N1 avian influenza A virus.”
“BACKGROUND: When an anterior approach to repair a burst fracture is indicated, several devices can be used to restore spinal stability (eg, bone graft, free-standing titanium cage, and expandable titanium cage).\n\nOBJECTIVE:

We compare the biomechanical stability and prices of each of these systems.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight fresh human cadaver T11 through L3 vertebral specimens were harvested and cleaned of soft tissues. T11-T12 and L2-L3 were fixed by screws. The fixed ends were then set in automotive body filler (Bondo). selleck products The prepared specimens were tested in the Biaxial Instron tester (8874, Norwood, MA) after a sequence of the following: intact, after the creation of an anterior corpectomy at L1, and after insertion of both of the 2 different titanium cages and the fibular graft. A titanium screw-and-plate anterolateral system was used to secure the construct (VANTAGE, Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN). The conditions of displacement testing were as follows: rotation (+/- 3.5 degrees), flexion and extension, and left and right bending (+/- 3.5 mm). For each mode of testing, the stiffness was calculated.

Then, these 97 lines were further genotyped based on resequencing

Then, these 97 lines were further genotyped based on resequencing data, and a resequencing-based physical map was constructed. Compared with the molecular marker-based physical map, the resequencing-based physical map of 97 lines contained 367 substituted

segments with 252 newly discovered segments. The total size of the 367 substituted segments was 1,074Mb, which was 2.81 times the size of rice genome. Using the 97 CSSLs as materials, we identified nine QTLs for heading date and three of them were firstly reported. All the QTLs had positive additive effects, ranging from 9.50 to 16.50 days. These CSSLs may greatly help forge a new resource for functional genomics studies and molecular breeding in rice.”
“BACKGROUNDPatients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond to ALK inhibitors. Clinically, the presence RG-7388 manufacturer of 15% cells with rearrangements identified on Lazertinib manufacturer break-apart

fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) classifies tumors as positive. Increases in native and rearranged ALK copy number also occur.\n\nMETHODSIn total, 1426 NSCLC clinical specimens (174 ALK-positive specimens and 1252 ALK-negative specimens) and 24 ALK-negative NSCLC cell lines were investigated. ALK copy number and genomic status were assessed by FISH.\n\nRESULTSClinical specimens with 0% to 9%, 10% to 15%, 16% to 30%, 31% to 50%, and >50% ALK-positive cells were identified in 79.3%, 8.5%, 1.4%, 2.7%, and 8.1%, respectively. An increased native ALK copy number (3 copies per cell in 40% of cells) was detected in 19% of ALK-positive tumors and in 62% of ALK-negative tumors. In ALK-negative tumors, abundant, focal amplification of native ALK was rare (0.8%). Other atypical patterns occurred in approximately 6% of tumors. The mean native ALK copy number ranged from 2.1 to 6.9 copies in cell lines and was not correlated with crizotinib sensitivity (50% inhibitory concentration,

0.34-2.8 FK228 cell line M; r=0.279; P=.1764). Neither native or rearranged ALK copy number nor the percentage of positive cells correlated with extra-central nervous system progression-free survival in ALK-positive patients who were receiving crizotinib.\n\nCONCLUSIONSOverall, 8.5% of tumors fell below the established positivity threshold by 5%. Further investigation of ALK by other diagnostic techniques in such cases may be warranted. Native ALK copy number increases alone were not associated with sensitivity to ALK inhibition in vitro. However, rare, complex patterns of increased native ALK in patients should be studied further; because, otherwise, atypical rearrangements contained within these may be missed. Cancer 2013;119:3968-3975. (c) 2013 American Cancer Society.”
“We conducted a cross-sectional study on prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) recruited from different types of venues in 6 cities in China.

The stable vibration response of the shells with side-on explosio

The stable vibration response of the shells with side-on explosion compared well with finite element solutions using a Dynamic, Implicit analysis in ABAQUS Standard. First-ply failure of the woven E-Glass/Vinyl Ester shell with side-on explosion was predicted using a modified Hashin-Rotem failure criterion. It was shown that the thinner woven

E-Glass/Vinyl Ester shells were more likely to fail by dynamic instability, whereas the thicker woven E-Glass/Vinyl Ester shells were more likely to fail by first-ply failure. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“This report describes GNS-1480 inhibitor a complex, surgical, and prosthodontic hemimaxillary rehabilitation with a prefabricated vascularized free fibula graft. The treatment was based on 3-dimensional skull and fibula models but avoided software-based virtual planning of the reconstructive procedure or the implant positions. Cast-based surgical guides were used for implant placement during prefabrication of the fibula graft and for the positioning of the prefabricated graft in the maxilla during the reconstructive procedure. This procedure allowed the definitive prosthesis to be attached to the implants of the reconstructed SRT2104 maxilla during the inpatient period.”
“Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating

clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched

a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while Selleck PRT062607 their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film (p(FWE) smaller than .05). Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p smaller than .

“The severity of haemophilia A has traditionally been clas

“The severity of haemophilia A has traditionally been classified by the dosage of factor VIII (FVIII) by one-step coagulation tests. However, an homogeneous group of patients with similar FVIII levels show clinical heterogeneity and 1015% of the patients classified as severe haemophilia do not have a severe bleeding phenotype. Traditional tests used for measuring FVIII are not capable of detecting other prohaemorrhagic or prothrombotic factors. Global tests as the thrombin generation assay (TGA) may detect these haemostatic factors. So TGA may be an additional tool for classifying the actual severity of haemophilia. Our group is carrying out correlation tests between Selleck ACY-241 FVIII and TGA

in platelet-poor and -rich plasmas (PPP and PRP, respectively). PRP has the inconvenience that must be done freshly soon after blood extraction. Our aim is to study the differences between TGA performed with fresh and frozen PRP and PPP and its implementation in multicenter studies. We included 70 patients with severe haemophilia A in prophylactic treatment. Venous blood drawing was obtained prior to administration of FVIII, at the trough levels. FVIII measurement and TGA were performed in fresh and frozen PRP and PPP. The platelet absence Crenolanib ic50 caused

a significant decrease in TGA although PPP and PRP correlated well. Frozen samples gave different results in PPP, but there were no significant differences between fresh and frozen PRP. This fact enables using frozen PRP in multicenter studies with a TGA-specialized laboratory for reclassifying haemophilia severity and for pharmacokinetic studies with TGA.”
“Electrochemical oxidation of tannery effluent was carried out in batch, batch recirculation and continuous reactor configurations under different conditions using a battery-integrated DC-DC converter and solar PV power supply. The effect of current density, electrolysis time and fluid flow rate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and energy consumption has INCB018424 ic50 been evaluated.

The results of batch reactor show that a COD reduction of 80.85% to 96.67% could be obtained. The results showed that after 7 h of operation at a current density of 2.5 A dm(-2) and flow rate of 100 L h(-1) in batch recirculation reactor, the removal of COD is 82.14% and the specific energy consumption was found to be 5.871 kWh (kg COD)(-1) for tannery effluent. In addition, the performance of single pass flow reactors (single and multiple reactors) system of various configurations are analyzed.”
“Case-chaos methodology is a proposed alternative to case-control studies that simulates controls by randomly reshuffling the exposures of cases. We evaluated the method using data on outbreaks in Sweden. We identified 5 case-control studies from foodborne illness outbreaks that occurred between 2005 and 2012.

Lastly, we also find that cleaved forms of PINK1 are degraded by

Lastly, we also find that cleaved forms of PINK1 are degraded by the proteasome, which is uncommon for mitochondrial proteins. Our findings support a dual subcellular localization, implying that PINK1 can reside in the mitochondria and the cytosol. This raises intriguing functional roles that bridge these AS1842856 clinical trial two cellular compartments.”
“Regulation of secondary (woody) growth is of substantial economic and environmental interest but is poorly understood. We identified and subsequently characterized an activation-tagged poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) mutant

with enhanced woody growth and changes in bark texture caused primarily by increased secondary phloem production. Molecular characterization of the mutation through Volasertib mouse positioning of the tag and retransformation experiments shows that the phenotype is conditioned by activation of an uncharacterized gene that encodes a novel member of the LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) family of transcription factors. Homology analysis showed highest similarity to an uncharacterized LBD1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, and we consequently named it Populus tremula x Populus alba (Pta) LBD1. Dominant-negative

suppression of Pta LBD1 via translational fusion with the repressor SRDX domain caused decreased diameter growth and suppressed and highly irregular phloem development. In wild-type plants, LBD1 was most highly expressed in the phloem and cambial zone. Two key Class

I KNOTTED1-like homeobox genes that promote meristem identity in the cambium were downregulated, while an Altered Phloem Development gene that is known to promote phloem differentiation was upregulated in the mutant. A set of four LBD genes, including the LBD1 gene, was predominantly expressed in wood-forming tissues, suggesting a broader regulatory role of selleck chemicals llc these transcription factors during secondary woody growth in poplar.”
“The occurrence of pinnotherid crab Arcotheres tivelae in the bivalve mollusc Amiantis umbonella was investigated for one year on the Bandar Abbas coast (Persian Gulf, Iran) Specimens of A umbonella were collected monthly from two transects from April 2007 to March 2008 and were investigated for presence of the Arcotheres tivelae Infestation frequency of A. tivelae was 9 1896 in a sample 01 893 clams From a total of 89 specimens of crabs, only eight were male They were observed in late February and early March, all of them but one in association with female crabs. There was no significant difference between the sexes of the infested clams that pea crabs choose as a host The mean carapace width of the crab A. tivelae was 77 +/- 1 7 mm and the mean length of the Amiantis umbonella was 39 84 +/- 8.93 mm. Clams in the mid and low tidal zones were more infested There was no significant relationship between clam length – crab width (R(2) = 0.

Further research is needed to understand if such changes increase

Further research is needed to understand if such changes increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.”
“Objective: The objective was to study the clinicopathologic features, grading, treatment protocols, and prognostic of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with liver metastasis and primary hepatic NET. Materials and Methods: The clinical data of 34 patients with hepatic NET were retrospectively reviewed. According to the primary tumor location and 2010 World Health Organization classification, the cases were categorized to analyze the clinicopathologic features,

treatment condition, and prognostic factors. Results: There was a marked male predominance either in gastroenteropancreatic NET liver Proteasome inhibitor metastasis group or primary group. Primary hepatic NET is mostly single nodule located in the right lobe of liver, and the metastatic hepatic NET is mostly from pancreas with multiple nodules and metastasizes to both lobes of the liver, with a high degree of malignancy and poor prognosis. There are 17 cases (50%) of NET and 17 cases (50%) of neuroendocrine

carcinoma (NEC) in all the 34 patients of this study. The mitotic figure and Ki-67 proliferation index are both higher in NEC group than in NET group, which indicated highly malignancy of the NEC. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates for primary group and metastatic group were 30% and 40%, respectively (P bigger than 0.05), while the 5-year

survival rates were 35% and 66%, respectively (P bigger than 0.05). Different tumor grade was found closely associated with 5-year DFS (P smaller than this website 0.05) Pevonedistat datasheet and overall survival (OS) (P smaller than 0.05) in both groups. Furthermore, we found 5-year DFS of patients with primary site of the tumor located in the gastrointestinal tract was much lower than that located in pancreas (P smaller than 0.05), while the 5-year OS showed no significant differences between two groups (P bigger than 0.05). Conclusions: Surgery is an effective method for the treatment of hepatic NET; tumor grading is an important determinant factor of prognosis.”
“This study examined the hypothesis that curcumin supplementation decreases blood levels of IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-alpha, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress by using a cell-culture model and a diabetic rat model. U937 monocytes were cultured with control (7 mM) and high glucose (35 mM) in the absence or presence of curcumin (0.01-1 mu M) at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (i.p., 65 mg/kg BW). Control buffer, olive oil, or curcumin (100 mg/kg BW) supplementation was administered by gavage daily for 7 weeks. Blood was collected by heart puncture with light anesthesia. Results show that the effect of high glucose on lipid peroxidation, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha secretion was inhibited by curcumin in cultured monocytes.

(Circ Res 2010;106:1818-1828 )”
“This study was conducted t

(Circ Res. 2010;106:1818-1828.)”
“This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of sorafenib monotherapy in clinical practice settings for Korean patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related primarily to HBV infection.\n\nMedical records of 57 consecutive patients with unresectable or metastatic HCC treated with 400 mg bid sorafenib at the National Cancer CBL0137 supplier Center, Korea between June 2007 and March 2008, were retrospectively reviewed.\n\nThe median patient age was 55 years

(range, 28-76 years), and all patients had performance status 0-2 and Child-Pugh class A or B disease. HCC was etiologically related to HBV in 79.0% of patients. Eleven patients (19.3%) had modified UICC stage III tumors, 11 (19.3%) had stage IVa, and 35 (61.4%) had stage IVb. Following sorafenib monotherapy, 3 patients (5.3%) achieved a partial response and 18 (35.1%) achieved stable disease, with a disease control rate of 40.4%. The median times to progression (TTP) was 9.1 weeks (95% CI 3.4-14.8 weeks). Multivariate analyses showed that serum alpha-fetoprotein (alpha-FP)

a parts per thousand yen400 ng/mL (HR, 2.810; P = 0.023) and the presence of massive intrahepatic tumors (HR, 7.633; P = 0.033) were independent GS-7977 supplier predictors of shorter TTP. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events were hand-foot syndrome (8.8%), diarrhea (7.0%), and skin rash (7.0%). Exacerbation of underlying chronic hepatitis B was not found.\n\nSorafenib monotherapy showed better outcomes with tolerable toxicity in Korean advanced HCC patients, who had intrahepatic nodular tumors and/or metastatic tumors, coupled with low levels of serum

“We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of administering a daily “polypill” consisting of three antihypertensive drugs, a statin, and aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease among high-risk patients in Latin America. We found that SRT1720 ic50 the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease could be reduced by 15 percent in women and by 21 percent in men if the polypill were used by people with a risk of cardiovascular disease equal to or greater than 15 percent over ten years. Attaining this goal would require treating 26 percent of the population at a cost of $34-$36 per quality-adjusted life-year. Offering the polypill to women at high risk and to men age fifty-five or older would be the best approach and would yield acceptable incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The polypill would be very cost-effective even in the country with the lowest gross national income in our study. However, policy makers must weigh the value of intervention with the polypill against other interventions, as well as their country’s willingness and ability to pay for the intervention.”
“The applicability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in future therapies depends on the availability of safe and efficient carrier systems.

(Brazil), and A

(Brazil), and A. BTSA1 nuno sp. nov. (Mexico). In addition, A. viridari (Armstrong, 1949), a close

relative and presumed sister lineage of the A. armillatus complex, is rediagnosed and its distinguishing features are highlighted. All species are abundantly illustrated, including variation of some morphological features and colour patterns. A character table and a key to the western Atlantic species of the A. armillatus complex are provided.”
“Objectives: Eating styles have been studied in both Obesity (OB) and Eating Disorders (ED), but they have not been examined in these two weight conditions together. The present study explores differences in eating styles in an Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and OB sample, compared to Healthy Controls (HC), and it analyses their relationship with JQEZ5 order Body Mass Index (BMI) and personality traits. Method: The total sample consisted of 291 female participants (66 AN, 79 OB and 146 HC). Evaluation: Assessment measures included the Dutch Eating Behaviour

Questionnaire-DEBQ- and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-TCI-R-. Results: The MANCOVA test showed significant differences among the three groups for all eating styles, with emotional eating being more typical in the OB group and restrained eating more typical in the AN group. Partial correlation analyses showed relationships between emotional and external eating and BMI, as well as relationships with different temperament and character traits. The step-wise discriminant function analysis showed that the DEBQ correctly classified 65.6% of the sample into the three weight categories; when combined with the TCI-R, correct classification

increased to 72.6%. Conclusions: Weight conditions showed different eating behaviour patterns. Temperament and character traits were related to eating behaviours. DEBQ and TCI-R were able to discriminate between groups. Differences in eating styles in the weight groups can have implications for understanding the development and maintenance of OB and ED. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Edge-loading in patients with metal-on-metal resurfaced hips can cause Quisinostat Epigenetics inhibitor high serum metal ion levels, the development of soft-tissue reactions local to the joint called pseudotumours and ultimately, failure of the implant. Primary edge-loading is where contact between the femoral and acetabular components occurs at the edge/rim of the acetabular component whereas impingement of the femoral neck on the acetabular component’s edge causes secondary or contrecoup edge-loading. Although the relationship between the orientation of the acetabular component and primary edge-loading has been identified, the contribution of acetabular component orientation to impingement and secondary edge-loading is less clear. Our aim was to estimate the optimal acetabular component orientation for 16 metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoMHRA) subjects with known serum metal ion levels.

In this review, we will highlight recent

In this review, we will highlight recent BMS-345541 studies by our group and others which discuss how junctional proteins can promote outside-to-inside signaling and modulate epithelial cell fate. Unraveling the complex crosstalk between epithelial cells and their intercellular junctions is essential to understanding how epithelial barrier function is maintained in vivo

and might provide new strategies for the treatment of inflammatory disorders of the intestine.”
“In this paper, the delay-dependent stability is investigated for neural networks with a time-varying delay. By using the augmented Lyapunov functional method and by resorting to the novel method for estimating the upper bound of the derivative of augmented Lyapunov functionals, the less conservative asymptotic stability criteria are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Two numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness and the less conservativeness of the proposed method. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights

“Both plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis influence resource acquisition and allocation in plants, but the interaction between these two components is not well established. As the different plant sexes differ in their resource needs and allocation patterns, it is logical to presume that they might differ in their relationship with AM as well. We investigate GNS-1480 order whether the association BGJ398 in vivo with AM symbiosis is different according to the host plant sex in the gynodioecious Geranium sylvaticum, of which, besides female and hermaphrodite plants, intermediate plants are also recognized. Specifically, we examine the effects of two different AM fungi in plant mass allocation and phosphorus acquisition using a factorial greenhouse/common garden experiment. Cloned G. sylvaticum material was grown

in symbiosis with AM fungi or in non-mycorrhizal condition. We evaluated both the symbiotic plant benefit in terms of plant mass and plant P content and the fungal benefit in terms of AM colonization intensity in the plant roots and spore production. Our results suggest that G. sylvaticum plants benefit from the symbiosis with both AM fungal species tested but that the benefits gained from the symbiosis depend on the sex of the plant and on the trait investigated. Hermaphrodites suffered most from the lack of AM symbiosis as the proportion of flowering plants was dramatically reduced by the absence of AM fungi. However, females and intermediates benefited from the symbiosis relatively more than hermaphrodites in terms of higher P acquisition. The two AM fungal species differed in the amount of resources accumulated, and the fungal benefit was also dependent on the sex of the host plant. This study provides the first evidence of sex-specific benefits from mycorrhizal symbiosis in a gynodioecious plant species.