Experimental results indicate that upconversion emission is a two

Experimental results indicate that upconversion emission is a two-photon process. It follows that the shortening of lifetime and the increasing of intensities of red emission are due to the increase in Er3+ ions cluster sites. Excited state absorption and energy transfer processes lead to the green emission while cross relaxation process produces the red emission. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3475511]“
“Hybrid titanium catalysts supported on silica/poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (SiO(2)/PSA) core-shell carrier were

prepared and studied. The resulting catalysts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ICG-001 nmr laser scattering particle analyzer and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The hybrid catalyst (TiCl(3)/MgCl(2)/THF/SiO(2)center dot TiCl(4)/MgCl(2)/PSA) showed core-shell structure and the thickness of the PSA layer in the two different hybrid catalysts was 2.0 mu m and 5.0 mu m, respectively. The activities of the hybrid catalysts were comparable to the conventional titanium-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst (TiCl(3)/MgCl(2)/THF/SiO(2)). The hybrid catalysts showed lower initial polymerization rate and longer polymerization life time compared with TiCl(3)/MgCl(2)/THF/SiO(2). The activities HTS assay of the hybrid catalysts were enhanced firstly and then decreased

with increasing PH(2)/PC(2)H(4). Higher molecular weight and broader molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polyethylene produced by the core-shell hybrid catalysts were obtained. Particularly, the hybrid catalyst with a PSA layer of 5.0 mu m obtained the longest polymerization life time with the highest activity (2071 kg PE mol(-1) Ti h(-1)) and the resulting polyethylene had the broadest MWD (polydispersity index = 11.5) under our experimental conditions. The morphology of the polyethylene particles produced by the hybrid catalysts was spherical, Kinase Inhibitor Library in vivo but with irregular subpartides due to the influence of PSA layer. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 1743-1751, 2010″
“The influences of channel layer width, spacer layer width, and delta-doping density on the electron density and its distribution

in the AlSb/InAs high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been studied based on the self-consistent calculation of the Schrodinger and Poisson equations with both the strain and nonparabolicity effects being taken into account. The results show that, having little influence on the total two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentration in the channel, the HEMT’s channel layer width has some influence on the electron mobility, with a channel as narrow as 100-130 angstrom being more beneficial. For the AlSb/InAs HEMT with a Te delta-doped layer, the 2DEG concentration as high as 9.1 X 10(12) cm(-2) can be achieved in the channel by enhancing the delta-doping concentration without the occurrence of the parallel conduction.

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc All rights reserved “
“Ictal asystole

(C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Ictal asystole is being recognized as a potential mechanism of sudden unexplained death

in epilepsy (SUDEP). We report a case of a patient without known cardiac disease presenting with ictal asystole resulting in syncope, trauma, and need for pacemaker implantation. The management of ictal asystole is also briefly reviewed. This case is notable for the asystolic episode wholly captured on video-electroencephalogram/electrocardiogram, the serious risk of trauma and death posed to the patient, and its implications for the mechanism of ictal asystole. This report will alert physicians to the possibility of ictal arrhythmias as a cause of syncope and SUDEP in vulnerable patients. QNZ inhibitor (PACE 2011; 14)”
“Conservation management actions and decisions are often defined by the location of ecological boundaries, for example, the present range of invasive or threatened species. The position of these boundaries can be cryptic, and managers must therefore directly Nutlin-3 price sample sites, an expensive and time-consuming process. While accurate boundary location techniques have been considered by ecological theorists, the issue of cost-effective, or optimal

boundary location has not. We propose a general framework for boundary location which incorporates both cost-efficiency and uncertainty. To illustrate its application, we use it to help locate an infectious disease front in the endangered Tasmanian devil population. The method ensures optimal spatial sampling by maximizing the expected information gained from each sample. When resources are limited, our method provides more accurate estimates of the boundary location than traditional sampling protocols. Using a formal decision

theory sampling design encourages economically efficient actions, and provides defensible and transparent rationale for management ABT-263 manufacturer actions. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Correlations among physical and electrical properties of atomic layer deposited (ALD)-Al2O3 on H2O-prepulsed Ge(100) have been investigated to evaluate Al2O3 as an ultrathin interface passivation layer for higher-k/Al2O3/Ge gate stacks. In situ XPS in the ALD environment provides insights into the local composition evolution during the initial stages of ALD, evidencing (a) an incubation regime that may limit the minimum achievable capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) of these gate stacks, and (b) residual hydroxyl incorporation in the film consistent with the observed dielectric constant similar to 7.2. Thickness scaling of the CET is consistent with a nearly abrupt interface as measured by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES). SRPES studies also reveal that forming gas anneal provides passivation through monolayer-level formation of stoichiometric GeO2, suggesting a complex chemical interaction involving residual -OH groups in the as-grown ALD-Al2O3.

Recombinant cells encapsulated were implanted in the peritoneum o

Recombinant cells encapsulated were implanted in the peritoneum of wild-type mice and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I mice, with or without prednisolone. Later, ABT-737 cell line microcapsules were recovered for histological and enzyme analysis. Blood was collected from MPS I mice. All animals receiving prednisolone had a smaller inflammatory infiltrate. In vitro, prednisolone increased the amount of enzyme released from the recovered capsules, but this was not accompanied by an increase in the amount of circulating enzyme in vivo after 15 days. However, in 7 days, prednisolone significantly increased the amount of enzyme detected

in the serum. Although prednisolone improved enzyme release in vitro and in vivo after 7 days, it was unable to maintain this effect for a longer period.”
“A considerable number of patients suffer recurrence of scabies. To elucidate risk factors for recurrence of scabies, we compared patients who experienced scabies recurrence and those who suffered scabies only once. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of all scabies patients in a long-term care hospital for the elderly (300 beds; six wards) for a period of 42 months to determine frequency of scabies onsets, underlying diseases, history of treatment, and demographic data such as age and sex. One hundred and forty-eight patients and five hospital staff NSC23766 cost members suffered scabies

during the 42-month study period. All staff members and 98 patients had no recurrence, while 50 patients experienced at least one recurrence of scabies. The cumulative number of scabies diagnoses was 228. The rates of scabies onset and recurrence were considerably different among wards. The dementia unit showed the highest rate of onset and recurrence. In addition to frequent exposure to infectious sources, problematic behavior, such as lying in other patients beds, might cause the high recurrence rate in dementia units. Higher serum total lymphocyte count and topical use of c-benzene hexachloride were associated with lower risk of scabies recurrence. Recurrence of scabies is not uncommon among elderly patients

in institutional settings. Impaired immunity may be a risk factor for recurrence of scabies. Groups with a high onset rate of scabies pose a high likelihood find more of recurrence. Problematic behavior of demented patients may increase the risk of recurrence. Use of effective topical treatment may effectively prevent recurrence.”
“Culling for infertility remains the main reason for disposal of dairy cows, limiting productive lifespan. In extreme cases, ovulation is inhibited, preventing the possibility of conception. More often cows do conceive, but fail to remain pregnant owing to intrinsic problems in the embryo and/or to a poor-quality reproductive tract environment. Both aspects have a genetic component and are also influenced by management practices affecting nutrition and health.

Such a methodology has first been employed on laboratory-prepared

Such a methodology has first been employed on laboratory-prepared ceramic samples, with different paramagnetic compositions and controlled firing temperatures, in order to tackle the problem of model-ceramic selection. Then, the T(1)-T(2) correlation approach has been used on

medieval ceramic findings in order to get information about their thermal and compositional history. The information obtained by means of two-dimensional correlation Vorinostat manufacturer maps proves coherent with archeological dating, thus illustrating the capabilities of this method.”
“Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of the Health Utilities Index Mark-3 (HUI-3) in heart failure (HF) for use in cost-effectiveness studies.

Methods and Results: Two hundred eleven patients with HF recruited from outpatient clinics were enrolled; 165 completed the 26-week study. Patients completed 4 health-related quality of life questionnaires (baseline and 4, 8, and 26 weeks), including the HUI-3, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-form 12 (SF-12), the Minnesota Living with

Heart Failure Questionnaire (LHFQ), and the Chronic Heart Failure Questionnaire (CHQ). The HUI-3 indicated moderate or fair health-related quality of life overall; DMXAA manufacturer the attributes most impaired were pain, ambulation, cognition, and emotion. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s

alpha = 0.51) was low and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.68) was adequate. The HUI-3 total score was significantly associated with the SF-12, LHFQ, and CHQ total scores. It discriminated among patients with varying New York Heart Association class (P < .001) and varying perceived health (P < .001). The HUI-3 was less responsive to perceived change in health condition than the LHFQ or the CHQ.

Conclusions: The HUI-3 demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity in this sample supporting its use in cost-effectiveness studies. (J Cardiac Fail 2011;17:143-150)”
“Enhanced cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with the reduction of cancer incidence as shown in epidemiological studies. ML323 inhibitor Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), one of the important compounds in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to induce apoptosis in many types of human cancer cell lines, but there is no available information addressing the effects on normal and leukemia mice in vivo. The purpose of this study is to focus on the in vivo effects of PEITC on immune responses of normal and WEHI-3 leukemia BALB/c mice in vivo. Influences of PEITC on BALB/c mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection with WEHI-3 cells and normal mice were investigated. In normal BALB/c mice, PEITC did not affect the body weight when compared to the olive oil treated animals.

Anecdotal reports suggest that the use of dietary supplements (DS

Anecdotal reports suggest that the use of dietary supplements (DSs) by soldiers may reflect their unique occupational requirements and the complexity of their job and family responsibilities.

Objective: We assessed the use of DSs by soldiers. Design: We conducted a survey of 990 randomly selected soldiers at 11 army bases find more globally. Data were weighted

by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status to represent the active-duty army.

Results: Overall, 53% of soldiers reported the use of DSs >= 1 time/wk; 23% of soldiers used sports beverages, 6% of soldiers used sports bars or gels, and 3% of soldiers reported the use of meal-replacement beverages. Most commonly used DSs were multivitamins or multi-minerals (37.5%), protein and

amino acids (18.7%), individual vitamins and minerals Vadimezan clinical trial (17.9%), combination products (9.1%), and herbal supplements (8.3%). Many soldiers reported the use of performance-enhancement and weight-reduction products, and 22% of soldiers consumed >= 3 different DSs/wk. Logistic regression modeling indicated that older age, educational attainment, higher body mass index, and strength training were associated with DS use (P < 0.05). Reported reasons for DS use were to improve health (64%), provide more energy (31%), increase muscle strength (25%), and enhance performance (17%). Among DS users, mean monthly expenditures on DSs were $38, whereas 23% of soldiers spent >$50/mo.

Conclusions:

Soldiers, like civilians, use large amounts of DSs, often in combination. Soldiers use more DSs purported learn more to enhance performance than civilians use when matched for key demographic factors. These differences may reflect the unique occupational demands and stressors of military service. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92:985-95.”
“Accumulation mode pseudo-MOSFETs formed on hydrogen terminated silicon-on-insulator (SOI-H) were used to probe molecular adsorption and reaction events. Current-voltage characteristics of such n-channel devices are found to be sensitive to the environment, with the accumulation threshold voltage, or flat-band voltage, exhibiting large reversible changes upon cycling between ambient atmosphere, high vacuum (< 10(-5) Torr), and exposure to water and pyridine vapor at pressures in the Torr range. The field-effect mobility is found to be comparatively less affected through these transitions. Oxidation of the H-terminated surface in ambient conditions leads to irreversible shifts in both the flat-band voltage and the field-effect mobility. A photochemical gas phase reaction with decene is used to form a decyl monolayer on the SOI(100)-H surface.


“We report a case of the giant thrombus on atrial lead of


“We report a case of the giant thrombus on atrial lead of a patient who has a DDD dual-chamber permanent pacemaker.”
“PURPOSE: To assess the

safety to the corneal endothelium of ultraviolet (UV) light treatment to a light-adjustable intraocular lens (IOL).

SETTING: Codet Vision Institute, Tijuana, Mexico.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

METHODS: The study evaluated consecutive patients scheduled for phacoemulsification cataract surgery with implantation of a light-adjustable IOL. Endothelial cell density (ECD), variation in the size of endothelial cells, and the percentage of hexagonal cells were determined centrally with a specular microscope preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively (before UV treatment), and 6 months postoperatively. Two adjustments and 2 lock-in procedures were performed with a light-delivery system between 2 weeks and CH5183284 mouse 4 weeks postoperatively.

RESULTS:

The study enrolled 10 patients. Specular microscopy showed a mean ECD of 2344 cells/mm(2) preoperatively. The mean overall central ECD was 2047 cells/mm(2) 1 week postoperatively and 2130 cells/mm(2) at 6 months, representing an endothelial cell loss of 12.6% and 9.1%, respectively, from preoperative values. There was no statistically significant difference in the coefficient of variation or percentage of hexagonal CHIR-99021 ic50 cells at either postoperative evaluation.

CONCLUSIONS: The endothelial cell loss at 6 months correlated well with previous reports of endothelial damage after phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. The light-adjustable IOL irradiation protocol for adjustment and lock-in procedures did not seem to add to the endothelial damage caused by the cataract surgery, indicating the protocol is safe to the corneal endothelium.”
“Parachlamydia Selleck Akt inhibitor acanthamoebae is a Chlamydia-like organism that easily grows within Acanthamoeba spp. Thus, it probably uses these widespread free-living amoebae as a replicative niche, a cosmopolite aquatic reservoir and a vector. A potential role of P. acanthamoebae as an agent of lower respiratory tract infection was initially suggested by its isolation within an Acanthamoeba

sp. recovered from the water of a humidifier during the investigation of an outbreak of fever. Additional serological and molecular-based investigations further supported its pathogenic role, mainly in bronchiolitis, bronchitis, aspiration pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia. P. acanthamoebae was shown to survive and replicate within human macrophages, lung fibroblasts and pneumocytes. Moreover, this strict intracellular bacterium also causes severe pneumonia in experimentally infected mice, thus fulfilling the third and fourth Koch criteria for a pathogenic role. Consequently, new tools have been developed for the diagnosis of parachlamydial infections. It will be important to routinely search for this emerging agent of pneumonia, as P.

Quantification of the two extracted analytes can be performed gra

Quantification of the two extracted analytes can be performed gravimetrically, as we did in this paper, or using spectrophotometric methods. Although this high rubber extraction temperature results in good rubber quantification, the partial degradation that occurs prevents accurate molecular

weight determination. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In a series of 1117 dermatofibromas (69% women and 31% men), there were 25 cases (2.2%) with basaloid cell hyperplasia (BCH) of the overlying epidermis. This type of hyperplasia, which closely resembled www.selleckchem.com/products/Cyt387.html a basal cell carcinoma (BCC), was predominantly seen in men (14 vs. 11 cases). To determine the nature of these BCHs, we applied a panel of 18 antibodies that are commonly used to classify epithelial proliferations on 6 cases with sufficient amounts of BCH and on 20 BCCs of various types. The number of CK20-positive Merkel cells was found to be increased in 4 cases of BCH, whereas these cells were completely this website absent or reduced in all BCCs. The significance of this finding must be interpreted with caution, but it must be regarded as a promising method to distinguish between reactive BCHs and neoplastic BCCs. Except for this rather subtle finding, none of

the antibodies used could discriminate between the 2 conditions.”
“Purpose of review

Active surveillance is emerging as a serious alternative to radical therapy for low-risk prostate cancer. In a situation in which the difference in effects on disease morbidity and mortality of different treatment options for these malignancies is likely to be small, the quality of life and psychological aspects may be decisive in treatment choice.

Recent findings

The following three are the main issues being check details covered in the literature on psychological aspects of active surveillance. First, the process of consultation with the physician and

treatment choice in men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer. Second, the effect of active surveillance on physical domains and resulting anxiety and distress, and on quality of life in general. And third, the possible supportive and educational interventions for patients on active surveillance. Observations are scarce and derived from nonrandomized studies with a limited follow-up after diagnosis.

Summary

At the moment of treatment choice, fear of disease progression is the main reason to reject active surveillance. Active surveillance may spare physical domains and does not cause much anxiety or distress on short term in men who choose this strategy. Once men opt for active surveillance, only a minority of them switch to radical treatment due to psychological reasons. Supportive and educational interventions should be considered.”
“Background: This study summarizes orthopedic injuries sustained in motorcycle collisions in patients presenting to a Level I trauma center.

(c) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3480987]“<

(c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3480987]“
“Several protease inhibitors have reached the world market in the last fifteen years, dramatically improving the quality of life and life expectancy of millions of HIV-infected patients. In spite of the tremendous HTS assay research efforts in this area, resistant HIV-1 variants are constantly decreasing the ability of the drugs to efficiently inhibit the enzyme. As a consequence, inhibitors with novel frameworks are necessary to circumvent resistance to chemotherapy.

In the present work, we have created 3D QSAR models for a series of 82 HIV-1 protease inhibitors employing the comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) method. Significant correlation coefficients

were obtained (q(2) = 0.82 and r(2) = 0.97), indicating the internal consistency of the best model, which was then used to evaluate an external test set containing 17 compounds. The predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental results, showing the robustness of the model and its substantial predictive power for untested compounds. The final QSAR model and the information gathered from the CoMFA contour maps should be useful for the design of novel anti-HIV agents with improved potency.”
“An ethnobotanical survey of herbal medicine used for treatment of malaria fever in 17 communities in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria was carried out. According to the results, 38 plant species belonging to 24 families were used in herbal

Selleck AZD0530 antimalarial recipes. Among the plants mentioned, the most frequently used were Morinda lucida (7.87%), Lawsonia inermis (7.41%), Citrus medica (6.94%), Sarcocephalus latifolius (6.48%) and Morinda morindiodes (6.48%). Investigations were carried out on the plant part (leaf, stem or root) used, method of preparing herbal antimalarial remedies SRT2104 mw and how it is administered. Result showed that irrespective of plant and part (leave, fruit, stem bark or root bark) or combinations of the plant parts, water and aqueous extract from fermented maize were the main medium of herbal antimalarial preparations. Treatment regimens of malaria generally included drinking, bathing and steam inhalation of the aqueous herbal preparations for 4 – 10 days or until symptoms of malaria disappear. About 65% of all the plants mentioned in the survey have been documented to have toxic effect on the liver and kidney of experimental mice. Continuous consumption of these plants could therefore have pathological effects on the consumers. Hence, this show the need for more research in order to identify lead compounds in indigenous antimalarial plants with less or no toxicity.

Results Among the 2,170 participants with complete data, the prev

Results Among the 2,170 participants with complete data, the prevalence of LBP in women (32%) was higher than that in men (25%) during the study period. One-day increases in LBP days were associated with greater decreases in PCS scores among men than among women (-0.72 vs. -0.29, sex difference P < 0.001). In contrast, no relationship was noted between the number A-1155463 of LBP days and the change in MCS score for either sex after adjustment.

Conclusions Although a greater incidence of LBP was noted in women, health-related quality of life was more seriously affected in men with the same number of days with LBP

in the month.”
“An antiferromagnet-ferromagnet-antiferromagnet trilayer was grown in magnetic field using CoMn, permalloy (Py), and FeMn, respectively. Magnetometry studies show that the direction of exchange coupling of CoMn with Py was perpendicular to that of Py with FeMn. These results are explained by a spin flop in the CoMn layer and show that the spin structure of an antiferromagnet may undergo severe modification due to a relatively small magnetic field applied during its growth. The perpendicular exchange coupling was exploited in the CoMn-Py-FeMn trilayer to manipulate the easy axis of the ferromagnet.”
“Purpose

To quantify the impact of constipation on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Black Americans.

Methods Case-control design. Black subjects referred for colon cancer selleck products screening with a Bristol Stool Score of 3-5 for >75% of bowel movements served as controls. Frequency-matched functional constipation subjects had to fulfill Rome III criteria. Both groups BMS-754807 ic50 completed demographic and health surveys. Short Form-36 assessed HRQoL.

Results We recruited 102 constipated patients and 100 controls. The groups were well matched demographically. After

adjustment for comorbidities, SF-36 scores for vitality, bodily pain, social functioning, and role-emotional were significantly lower in constipated patients. Unadjusted physical and mental component summary scores (PCS and MCS) were significantly higher in the control group (47.1 +/- 10.6 vs. 43.3 +/- 8.6; P = 0.005 and 50.6 +/- 12.4 vs. 43.4 +/- 11.8; P < 0.001, respectively). After adjustment for comorbidities, PCS differences were no longer significant (P = 0.54); however, MCS differences were significant (P = 0.004). Marginal mean scores for the MCS for controls and constipated subjects were 49.9 +/- 1.2 and 43.6 +/- 1.2, respectively. The presence of a comorbidity was independently associated with PCS (P < 0.001) and MCS (P = 0.026) results.

Conclusions Functional constipation has a significant impact on HRQoL in middle-aged Black Americans, particularly in regard to mental well-being.”
“BaTiO3 (BTO) thin film capacitors were deposited on Ni substrate using rf magnetron sputtering.


“The aim of this study is to determine the protective effe


“The aim of this study is to determine the protective effects of vitamin D-3 and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a blood-brain barrier transportable form of vitamin C, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury on a middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model of brain since reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathophysiology of I/R injury in brain. In order to examine antioxidant

status and lipid peroxidation, we assayed malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities as free radical scavenging enzymes in cortex and corpus striatum (CS). Wistar albino rats were selleck screening library Torin 1 in vivo divided into five equal groups of each consisting of seven rats: control, I/R, I/R + DHA, I/R + vitamin D-3, and I/R + vitamin D-3 + dehydroascorbic acid groups. MDA levels were found to be increased in the I/R group, I/R + DHA, and I/R + vitamin D-3 groups

compared with the control group in both cortex and corpus striatum. However, MDA level were found to be significantly decreased in only I/R + vitamin D-3 + DHA group compared with the I/R group in cortex (P < 0.0001). MDA levels were not significantly different in I/R + DHA, and I/R + vitamin D-3 groups compared with the I/R group. GSH and SOD enzyme activities were significantly decreased in I/R, I/R + DHA, and I/R + vitamin D-3 groups compared with the control group in both cortex and corpus striatum (CS) (P < 0.0001). Whereas, both GSH and SOD activity were increased in I/R + vitamin D-3 + DHA group compared with the I/R group in both cortex

and CS (P < 0.001 in cortex, P < 0.001 in CS for SOD P < 0.002 in cortex P < 0.03 in CS for GSH). Our results demonstrate that the combination of vitamin D-3 and ABT-263 nmr DHA treatment prevent free radical production and dietary supplementation of vitamin D-3 and DHA which may be useful in the ischemic cerebral vascular diseases.”
“Two methodologies were compared to encapsulate nisin in liposomes of partially purified soybean phosphatidylcholine: reversed-phase and hydration film. In the hydration film method, both probe-type and bath-type ultrasound were evaluated. The size of liposomes was evaluated by light scattering analysis and residual antimicrobial activities by agar diffusion assay using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as indicator strain. The size of liposomes prepared by reversed-phase, hydration film using probe-type and bath-type ultrasound were 190, 181 and 148 nm with residual antimicrobial activities after encapsulation of 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively.